JAZZ- midterm notes

JAZZ- midterm notes - The Jazz Timeline 1 Blues(circa 1800s...

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The Jazz Timeline: 1. Blues (circa 1800s) 2. Ragtime- Solo piano music (c.1890-1900s) 3. New Orleans- King Oliver (b. 1885-1930s) group music 4. “Satchmo” Louis Armstrong (1920s and 30s lived till the 60s) -Focus shifts from group playing to group w/ soloist 5. Duke Ellington at the Cotton Club (the late 1920s) -Focus back to group playing w/ emphasis on composition 6. The Swing Era (1930s) -Focus on group, audience dancing, simple compositions 7. Bebop (the 1940s) -Complex musical structure w/ focus on Soloist 8. Modern Jazz (late 1950s) -“Kind of Blues” (Popular Jazz Album) by Miles Davis - Minimalistic composition 9. Post Bebop (1960s) -Focus on expression -John Coltrane 10. Free Jazz (1960s) -Expressive with less focus on Structure -Ornette Coleman SOUND IS A VIBRATION! Melody- “series of single notes that add up to a recognizable whole” Dynamics- loud or soft Pitch- highness or lowness Intervals- Steps and leaps Rhythm- beat, tempo, meter, accent, syncopation- “the pattern of duration of notes and silences in the music” Beat- “regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music in equal units of time” Meter- “organizing bets into groups” Accent- “to place emphasis on a note more than the other notes” Syncopation- “accenting of the a note at an unexpected time, as between two beats or on a weak beat” Tempo- speed of music Harmony- “how chords are constructed and how they follow each other” Chords- “combination of three or more tines sounded at once” Key- “central note, scale and chord within a piece, in relationship to which all other tones in the composition are heard” Tonic- “central note of a melody or larger piece of music- TONIC= KEY THE BEGINNING: AFRICA- the roots of Jazz (the region of slave trade)(West Africa) Traditional African Musical Tradition- music and dance are one and the same
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GRIOT- “a story teller in Western Africa who perpetuates the oral tradition and history of a village or family” African Tradition comes to America- Work Songs African mixing with European- Ring Shout Slaves not allowed to have drums or to use them. Only on Sundays Expressed emotions through music- BLUES BLUES: Three Different Meanings: 1. Mood or Feeling 2. Altering a note of a melody form what is expected to a note BENT downward. 3. A 12 Bar Form Country Blues- Mississippi Delta Blues Robert Johnson- Oldest genre of Blues- “Drunken Hearted Man” CLASSIC BLUES 1. Bessie Smith - Sang for change @ age 9 - Gained notoriety as a singer in a minstrel act. - Theatre Owner’s Book Agency= T.O.B.A.=Tough On Black Artists - $2000/wk in 1923 - “Empty Bed Blues”, “Need a Little Sugar in My Bowl”, “You’ve Got to Give me Some” 2. Emergence of “Classic Blues” 3. Female Singers instead of Males 4. Folk Music becomes popular - Traditional Blues: blues began as a less rigid form - Performers would lengthen some chords to longer than 4 beats
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JAZZ- midterm notes - The Jazz Timeline 1 Blues(circa 1800s...

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