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Test 4- (Final) COMD Notes Language History and Change

Test 4- (Final) COMD Notes Language History and Change -...

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COMD TEST 4 Language History and Change Philology: the study of the history of language Linguists in the 19 th century Were obsessed with Philology. They decided that the original form of language which is the source of all modern languages was Proto-Indo-European . This was found on the Indian’s subcontinent and in Europe. Great grand mother of languages Considered to be approx. 30 families Cognate A word in one language that has similar form to a word in another language and is used for similar meaning One way we can tell a language is related to another language is by cognates Ex. bananas, family, intelligent Comparative Reconstruction : how we reconstruct what the original form must have been in any given language Ex. English: we know all languages change. We could listen to some old English and have no idea what’s going on, then goes to middle English and you can understand a little, then goes on to modern English Ways to do this: o Majority Principal : take foreign languages that are related and we have a cognate set (set of words that are similar). Ex. if three of the words start with letter p, and the fourth word starts with b. ¾ start with P so we assume that the word in the original language also started with a p. o Most Natural Development Principal : based on the fact that certain types of sound changes are very common. If We’re going to reconstruct the original language we’re going to assume that: KNOW THESE Final vowels often disappear. Voiceless sounds often become voiced between vowels Stops become fricatives Consonants become voiceless at the end of words The reconstruction is an attempt to determine what the language was like before written records Old English 5 th century a.d. English was spoken by tribes of Anglo-Saxons and Jews. From this early variety of English we get the most basic terms of our language Examples of Old English: mann, wif, cild, hus, mete, etan, drincan, foehtan
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Middle English: 1066 is beginning of middle English Marked by the arrival of the Norman French in England. English was only spoken by the peasants. Nobility, gov, law spoke French Canterbury Tales: The General Prologue o Whan that aprill with his shoures soote… Changes from Early English to Modern English 1. Metathesis : the reversal imposition of two adjoining sounds. The words were metathesized.
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Test 4- (Final) COMD Notes Language History and Change -...

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