NeedToKnow17-22 - Chap 17: -As we start another oxidative...

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Chap 17: -As we start another oxidative pathway, keep in mind previously studied pathways (glycolysis/gluconeogenesis/TCA cycle) and understand how to link the most important intermediates of these pathway to the fatty acid oxidation (slide # 1). -For fatty acids structure and nomenclature you need to go back to chap 10 -Understand the significant advantage in using tryglycerols as stored fuels rather than polysccharides -Origin of fat in our body- Understand the mechanism related to fat digestion (Fig. 17. 1)- What are chilomicrons? -Understand the fate of fatty acids in different organs -Understand how fat is mobilized (Fig 17. 3) -Understand different steps, enzymes, cellular compartments, importance of the acyl- carnitine/carnitine transporter in the β oxidation process- pay attention to the steps similar to the Krebs cycle -yield of NADH, FADH2, ATP as a result of the complete β oxidation of a fatty acid/compare to carbs - β oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (enoyl-CoA can not act on cis bonds), polyunsaturated fatty acids, odd number fatty acids-What are the additional steps/enzymes required -How does coenzyme B12 catalyze the exchange of substituents on adjacent carbons? -Other ways for fatty acids oxidation. Similarities and differences as compared to the β oxidation in mitochondria (where do they occur, specificity to different length fatty acids, enzymes and extra steps required -Understand when does the ketone bodies synthesis take place, what are ketone bodies, what are enzymes involved in their synthesis and breakdown in the brain -Understand the regulation and the indirect hormonal regulation of fatty acids oxidation (fig 17. 12) -Learn how to apply the integration of different metabolic pathways into your daily life. Understand how different diet can affect your fat/carb metabolism.
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Chapter 19 Oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are each made possible by a group of electron carriers. These include NAD+, NADP+, and the flavoproteins FMN and FAD. Other important molecules include pigments, cytochromes, an ATP Synthase, and a few others. Each group of electron carriers functions in a slightly different way. You should be able to understand the differences in function between flavin versus nicotinamide-based carriers. You should understand the basic functional differences between pigments. You should understand the sources of electrons that feed into these two major pathways (FAD, NADH, Glycerol 3-phosphate, etc). There are a couple special “centers” that transfer electrons. Understand iron- sulfur centers and copper in the respiratory chain. Understand the difference between an Iron-Sulfur Center and a Rieske Center. NADH is very important in the formation of an electrochemical gradient for ATP synthesis by providing some of the electrons for the electron transport chain. Be able to list a number of Dehydrogenase reactions that yield NADH. Table 19-1 is a very good summary. The respiratory chain is composed of 4 complexes. Know the components of
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NeedToKnow17-22 - Chap 17: -As we start another oxidative...

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