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Outline of the History of Venice421March 25, 421 is the legendary date for the founding of Venice. During this period, the Roman Empire on the Italian peninsula was attacked by invaders from northern and eastern Europe and Asia.451The founding of Venice according to traditional chronologies.639The date of the oldest surviving document of Venetian history: the inscription on the altar commemorating the foundation of the church of Santa Maria Assunta in Torcello, the island where the first settlement in the Venetian lagoon flourished. This Romanesque church was rebuilt in 1006, and sections of it were enlarged in the centuries that followed. Inside the church are mosaics of the Last Judgment(12thand 13thcenturies) and of the Virgin and Child(13thcentury).691Pauluccio Anafesto, the first doge (from the Latin word “dux,” leader) of Venice, is nominated at Eraclea, on the mainland.742Doge Diodato moves the seat of government from Eraclea to Malamocco, on the Lido (the barrier island that separates the Venetian lagoon from the Adriatic sea).751The exarchate of Ravenna, in Emilia Romagna, falls to the Longobards, originallyfrom Hungary. This enables the Venetian islands to free themselves from Byzantine rule (Ravenna had been an important Byzantine stronghold on the Italian peninsula).800After Charlemagne, king of the Franks, liberates the Italian peninsula from the Longobards, the Pope makes him the first Holy Roman Emperor. 810The seat of government moves to Rialto(“high river”), the banks by the deepest waters in the Venetian lagoon. It will eventually become the city's commercial and business center. 812Agreements between Constantinople (modern day Istanbul) and the Franks recognize and confirm the authority of the Bishop of Castello (Venice’s leading religious authority) and the Doge of Venice. This recognition will ensure the future prosperity of the city as future bishops and Doges of Venice work together to levy custom duties on merchandise going through the city. Venice soon becomes an important harbor for goods traveling between the Middle East and Western Europe. 828The remains of Saint Mark the Evangelistare stolen from Alexandria in Egypt and brought to Venice. He will become the patron saint of Venice.982The Benedictine monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore (St. George the Greater) is founded on the island facing Saint Mark’s Square. 976A fire destroys the Chapel of the Doges, and the remains of Saint Mark disappear.978Construction of the Basilica of San Marco(Saint Mark’s) begins.992Doge Pietro Orseolo II obtains favorable conditions for Venice’s river and sea trade from empires in both the East and the West.998-1001Venice conquers the Dalmatian coast (Yugoslavian coast). 999The Holy Roman Emperor, Otto III of Saxony, visits Venice and grants the city important trading privileges. Venice will become an important crossroad for German merchants doing business with the Middle East.