Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Strategic Management and Strategic...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness PART 1 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INPUTS Twenty-First Century Competition Globalization The global economy Rapid technological change Today’s Competitive Markets Increasing importance of knowledge and people 1–2 Strategic Competitiveness Formulation and implementation of a superior valuecreating strategy Commitments and actions to achieve above-average performance and returns What the firm will do Competitive advantage What the firm will not do 1–3 Figure 1.1 Process The Strategic Management 1–4 Increasing Increasing The Global Competitive Landscape • Market volatility and instability due to the rapid pace of change in markets • Blurring of market boundaries • Globalized flow of financial capital • Need for flexibility, speed, innovation, and integration in the use of technology • Strategic and operational complexity of global-scale competition • Rising product quality standards Decreasing Decreasing • Traditional time for adapting to change • Traditional sources of competitive advantage • Traditional managerial mindset 1–5 Hypercompetition Global economy Use of price-quality positioning to build market presence Strategic options in hypercompetitive environments Creation of new know-how and use of first-mover advantage Technology Protection or invasion of established geographic or product markets 1–6 Competitive Success Factors Are market/ customer-needs oriented Have an entrepreneurial/ opportunistic mindset Make effective use of valuable competencies Top Corporate Performers Offer new and innovative products and services 1–7 Technology and Technological Changes Increasing rate of technology diffusion and the emergence of disruptive technologies Technology trends impacting the global competitive environment The information age: Internet and the global proliferation of low-cost computing power Increasing knowledge intensity as an intangible source of competitive advantage 1–8 Strategic Flexibility • Strategic Flexibility – involves coping with the uncertainty and risks of hypercompetitive environments. – must first overcome built-up organizational inertia. – requires developing the capacity for continuous learning and applying the new and updated skills sets and competencies to the firm’s competitive advantage. 1–9 The Industry Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns Diversification Product differentiation Barriers to market entry Economies of scale Industry concentration The Firm’s Strategic Choices Market frictions 1–10 Figure 1.2 The I/O Model of Above-Average Returns 1–11 I/O Model Assumptions 1. The external environment imposes pressures and constraints that determine strategic choices. 2. Similarity in strategically relevant resources causes competitors to pursue similar strategies. 3. Resource differences among competitors are short-lived due to resource mobility across firms. 4. Strategic decision makers are rational and engage in profitmaximizing behaviors. 1–12 Five Forces Model of Competition Substitutes Substitutes Suppliers Suppliers Industry Industry Rivalry Rivalry Buyers Buyers Potential Potential Entrants Entrants 1–13 Five Forces Model Assumptions • Industry profitability (i.e., rate of return on invested capital relative to cost of capital) is a function of interactions among the five forces. • Industry attractiveness equates to its profitability potential for earning above-average returns by: – Producing standardized goods or services at costs below competitor costs (a cost leadership strategy). – Producing differentiated goods or services for which customers are willing to pay a price premium (a differentiation strategy). 1–14 The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns e g a t n a v d a e v i t i t e p m o Core c g n i competence d l Capability i A source of Bu Resources An integrated set of resources competitive advantage Physical, human, and organizational capital (tangible and intangible) 1–15 Resource-Based Model Assumptions 1. Firms acquire different resources. 2. Firms develop unique capabilities based on how they combine and use resources. 3. Resources and certain capabilities are not highly mobile across firms. 4. Differences in resources and capabilities are the bases of competitive advantage and a firm’s performance rather than its industry’s structural characteristics. 1–16 Resources As Core Competencies Costly to imitate Rare How resources become core competencies Valuable Nonsubstitutable 1–17 Figure 1.3 The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns 1–18 Strategic Decision Making Industry Organization (I/O) Model Resource-Based Model Competitive Strategy Decision 1–19 Vision Statement • A Successful Vision – is an enduring word picture of what the firm wants to be and expects to achieve in the future. – stretches and challenges its people. – reflects the firm’s values and aspirations. – is most effective when its development includes all stakeholders. – recognizes the firm’s internal and external competitive environments. – is supported by upper management decisions and actions. 1–20 Mission Statement • An Effective Mission – specifies the present business or businesses in which the firm intends to compete and customers it intends to serve. – has a more concrete, near-term focus on current product markets and customers than the firm’s vision. – should be inspiring and relevant to all stakeholders. 1–21 Stakeholders Can affect development of the firm’s vision and mission Primary stakeholders (individuals, groups, and organizations) Are affected by the strategic outcomes achieved by the firm Can have enforceable claims on the firm’s performance Are influential when in control of critical or valued resources 1–22 Classification of Stakeholders Categories of stakeholders Capital Market Stakeholders Product Market Stakeholders Organizational Stakeholders 1–23 Figure 1.4 The Three Stakeholder Groups 1–24 Capital Market Stakeholders Preservation of investment Influence Conflicting expectations of shareholders and lenders Risk/return Enhanced wealth 1–25 Product Market Stakeholders Types of product market stakeholders Suppliers Customers Host communities Unions 1–26 Organizational Stakeholders Responsibilities of strategic leaders for development and effective use of the firm’s human capital Education and skills of employees Organizational culture and ethical work environment Strategic goals and global standards International assignments 1–27 The Work of Effective Strategic Leaders • Strategic Leaders – have a strong strategic orientation that relies on thorough analysis when taking action. – are located at various levels throughout the firm. – want the firm and its people to accomplish more. – are innovative thinkers who promote innovation. – can leverage relationships with external parties while simultaneously promoting exploratory learning. – have an ambicultural (global mindset) approach to management. 1–28 Predicting Outcomes of Strategic Decisions: Profit Pools • Profit Pool – entails the total profits earned in an industry at all points along the value chain. – helps a firm see what others do not see and to understand primary sources of profits in an industry. • Identifying profit pools: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the pool’s boundaries Estimate the pool’s overall size Estimate the size of the pool’s value-chain activity Reconcile the calculations 1–29 The Strategic Management Process: The ASP Process • Analyses – C2: The external environment – C3: The internal organization • Strategies – C4: Business-level strategies – C5: Marketplace competition – C6: Corporate-level strategies • Strategies (cont’d) – C7: Diversified portfolio management – C8: International strategies – C9: Cooperative strategies • Performance – – – – C10: Governance mechanisms C11: Organizational structure C12: Strategic leadership C13: Strategic entrepreneurship 1–30 Chapter 1 Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness PART 1 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INPUTS Twenty-First Century Competition Globalization The global economy Rapid technological change Today’s Competitive Markets Increasing importance of knowledge and people 1–32 Strategic Competitiveness Formulation and implementation of a superior valuecreating strategy Commitments and actions to achieve above-average performance and returns What the firm will do Competitive advantage What the firm will not do 1–33 Figure 1.1 Process The Strategic Management 1–34 Increasing Increasing The Global Competitive Landscape • Market volatility and instability due to the rapid pace of change in markets • Blurring of market boundaries • Globalized flow of financial capital • Need for flexibility, speed, innovation, and integration in the use of technology • Strategic and operational complexity of global-scale competition • Rising product quality standards Decreasing Decreasing • Traditional time for adapting to change • Traditional sources of competitive advantage • Traditional managerial mindset 1–35 Hypercompetition Global economy Use of price-quality positioning to build market presence Strategic options in hypercompetitive environments Creation of new know-how and use of first-mover advantage Technology Protection or invasion of established geographic or product markets 1–36 Competitive Success Factors Are market/ customer-needs oriented Have an entrepreneurial/ opportunistic mindset Make effective use of valuable competencies Top Corporate Performers Offer new and innovative products and services 1–37 Technology and Technological Changes Increasing rate of technology diffusion and the emergence of disruptive technologies Technology trends impacting the global competitive environment The information age: Internet and the global proliferation of low-cost computing power Increasing knowledge intensity as an intangible source of competitive advantage 1–38 Strategic Flexibility • Strategic Flexibility – involves coping with the uncertainty and risks of hypercompetitive environments. – must first overcome built-up organizational inertia. – requires developing the capacity for continuous learning and applying the new and updated skills sets and competencies to the firm’s competitive advantage. 1–39 The Industry Organization (I/O) Model of Above-Average Returns Diversification Product differentiation Barriers to market entry Economies of scale Industry concentration The Firm’s Strategic Choices Market frictions 1–40 Figure 1.2 The I/O Model of Above-Average Returns 1–41 I/O Model Assumptions 1. The external environment imposes pressures and constraints that determine strategic choices. 2. Similarity in strategically relevant resources causes competitors to pursue similar strategies. 3. Resource differences among competitors are short-lived due to resource mobility across firms. 4. Strategic decision makers are rational and engage in profitmaximizing behaviors. 1–42 Five Forces Model of Competition Substitutes Substitutes Suppliers Suppliers Industry Industry Rivalry Rivalry Buyers Buyers Potential Potential Entrants Entrants 1–43 Five Forces Model Assumptions • Industry profitability (i.e., rate of return on invested capital relative to cost of capital) is a function of interactions among the five forces. • Industry attractiveness equates to its profitability potential for earning above-average returns by: – Producing standardized goods or services at costs below competitor costs (a cost leadership strategy). – Producing differentiated goods or services for which customers are willing to pay a price premium (a differentiation strategy). 1–44 The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns e g a t n a v d a e v i t i t e p m o Core c g n i competence d l Capability i A source of Bu Resources An integrated set of resources competitive advantage Physical, human, and organizational capital (tangible and intangible) 1–45 Resource-Based Model Assumptions 1. Firms acquire different resources. 2. Firms develop unique capabilities based on how they combine and use resources. 3. Resources and certain capabilities are not highly mobile across firms. 4. Differences in resources and capabilities are the bases of competitive advantage and a firm’s performance rather than its industry’s structural characteristics. 1–46 Resources As Core Competencies Costly to imitate Rare How resources become core competencies Valuable Nonsubstitutable 1–47 Figure 1.3 The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns 1–48 Strategic Decision Making Industry Organization (I/O) Model Resource-Based Model Competitive Strategy Decision 1–49 Vision Statement • A Successful Vision – is an enduring word picture of what the firm wants to be and expects to achieve in the future. – stretches and challenges its people. – reflects the firm’s values and aspirations. – is most effective when its development includes all stakeholders. – recognizes the firm’s internal and external competitive environments. – is supported by upper management decisions and actions. 1–50 Mission Statement • An Effective Mission – specifies the present business or businesses in which the firm intends to compete and customers it intends to serve. – has a more concrete, near-term focus on current product markets and customers than the firm’s vision. – should be inspiring and relevant to all stakeholders. 1–51 Stakeholders Can affect development of the firm’s vision and mission Primary stakeholders (individuals, groups, and organizations) Are affected by the strategic outcomes achieved by the firm Can have enforceable claims on the firm’s performance Are influential when in control of critical or valued resources 1–52 Classification of Stakeholders Categories of stakeholders Capital Market Stakeholders Product Market Stakeholders Organizational Stakeholders 1–53 Figure 1.4 The Three Stakeholder Groups 1–54 Capital Market Stakeholders Preservation of investment Influence Conflicting expectations of shareholders and lenders Risk/return Enhanced wealth 1–55 Product Market Stakeholders Types of product market stakeholders Suppliers Customers Host communities Unions 1–56 Organizational Stakeholders Responsibilities of strategic leaders for development and effective use of the firm’s human capital Education and skills of employees Organizational culture and ethical work environment Strategic goals and global standards International assignments 1–57 The Work of Effective Strategic Leaders • Strategic Leaders – have a strong strategic orientation that relies on thorough analysis when taking action. – are located at various levels throughout the firm. – want the firm and its people to accomplish more. – are innovative thinkers who promote innovation. – can leverage relationships with external parties while simultaneously promoting exploratory learning. – have an ambicultural (global mindset) approach to management. 1–58 Predicting Outcomes of Strategic Decisions: Profit Pools • Profit Pool – entails the total profits earned in an industry at all points along the value chain. – helps a firm see what others do not see and to understand primary sources of profits in an industry. • Identifying profit pools: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the pool’s boundaries Estimate the pool’s overall size Estimate the size of the pool’s value-chain activity Reconcile the calculations 1–59 The Strategic Management Process: The ASP Process • Analyses – C2: The external environment – C3: The internal organization • Strategies – C4: Business-level strategies – C5: Marketplace competition – C6: Corporate-level strategies • Strategies (cont’d) – C7: Diversified portfolio management – C8: International strategies – C9: Cooperative strategies • Performance – – – – C10: Governance mechanisms C11: Organizational structure C12: Strategic leadership C13: Strategic entrepreneurship 1–60 ...
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