ARTIFICIAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION IN WOMEN

ARTIFICIAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION IN WOMEN - ARTIFICIAL...

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ARTIFICIAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION IN WOMEN HORMONAL CONTRACEPTION RISKS/BENEFITS
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BACKGROUND Half of all pregnancies in US unintended About half of these are terminated Main factors for unintended pregnancies 1. Contraception not used 2. Contraception failure 3. Ineffective contraception
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COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE “THE PILL” 1960- Approved by US FDA Contained high levels E (150ug) and P(9.8mg) Today’s Pill contains 60%-90% less E and P and improved formulations of hormones OC use peaked in the late 1960s, declined in the 1970s due to health- risk concerns and has remained stable since 1982 About 80% of all US women will use OCs during reproductive years, but ~1/2 will discontinue use in first year due to health concerns and side effects
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COMBINED CONTRACEPTIVES Active ingredients: Estradiol (ethynlestradiol), Progestin (synthetic P4) Mechanism: inhibits ovulation, increases viscosity of cervical mucous, alters endometrium Effectiveness: >99% Types: oral (pill), patch, vaginal ring, injectables, implants New delivery systems may reduce side effects and improve usage
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Hormonal Effects: Estrogen Estradiol increases: Angiotensin and aldosterone which may lead to water retention, weight gain, increased blood pressure and other c.v. effects SHBP which results in antiandrogen effects Bone density Blood clotting factors (some), primary risk to women with genetic thrombophilic disorders E-positive cancer cells HDLs Estradiol reduces: bleeding irregularities (spotting, break-through bleeding) anemia Negative effects of E compounded with smoking, diabetes, other genetic disorders and obesity
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Hormonal effects: Progestins Progestins derived from: Progesterone-derivatives, Testosterone, Drospirenone (Spironolactone derivatives ). All effect Gn release (block ovulation), cervical and
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course ANIMAL SCI 360 taught by Professor Godkin during the Spring '08 term at University of Tennessee.

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ARTIFICIAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION IN WOMEN - ARTIFICIAL...

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