Midterm outline for Ocean

Midterm outline for Ocean - Chapter 1 I. A world ocean...

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Chapter 1 I. A world ocean perspective There is only one ocean: the world ocean A. The science of oceanography 1. Oceanographers divide efforts among 4 subdiscipline a. Geological oceanographers: Study ocean basins and the structures and features w/in them b. Physical Oceanographers: study waves and tides, the circulation of the world ocean, and a variety of other important physical processes c. Chemical Oceanographers: study the chemical constituents that make up the world ocean and their sources, sinks and transformations d. Biological oceanographers: study living systems and how they respond to changes in the geological, physical, and chemical environment 2. Oceanographers use scientific inquiry Chapter 2 I. The Foundations of Modern Geology A. James Hutton proposed that Earth underwent an endless cycle of formation and destruction with "no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end."Believed Earth operated infinitely 1. Hutton is now recognized as the "father" of modern geology B. Charles Lyell developed Hutton's ideas further & promoted the principle of uniformitarianism--idea that processes acting today are the same processes that acted in the past 1. the modern view of uniformitarianism called actualism has 3 main principles a. Geologic processes observed today occurred in the past b. some past geologic processes no longer occur c. the rate and intensity of geologic processes may vary through geologic time II. The Solar System A. Origins of the Solar System 1. the solar nebula model: states that the solar systems originate when clouds of interstellar gas and dust are disturbed by the explosion of a nearby star or some other cosmic event a. the fist bits of solid planetary materials formed about 4.56 billion yrs ago B. The Sun
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1. makes up 99% of the total mass in the solar system 2. supplies solar energy (light, heat, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation) & a stream of charged particles called solar wind C. The Rocky Planets and the Gas Planets 1. the four inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars (called the terrestrial or rocky planets cause they are primarily composed of silicate rocks with an iron-nickel core 2. the four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus (make up Jovian or gas planets because they are primarily composed of helium and hydrogen based gases, like the sun) D. The Asteroid Belt 1. between the rocky and gas planets lies the asteroid belt: a bunch of oddly shaped rocks whose combined mass is no greater than the moon E. The Moon 1. The moon was created when a large planetlike object hit baby earth and ejected the moon; both formed from the same material F. Dating the Solar System
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Midterm outline for Ocean - Chapter 1 I. A world ocean...

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