NS102 Lavalli - Study Guide for Team Exam 2 (4-15-08)

NS102 Lavalli - Study Guide for Team Exam 2 (4-15-08) -...

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Study Guide for Team Exam 2, Spring 2008 Kraskopf, pg. 667-673, 679-697, 701-723, 201-218, 231-233 & JSA Lecture (Modern Astronomy), Team Lecture (Modern Physics & Atomic Spectra), JSA Lecture (Big Bang), Team Lecture (Nucleosynthesis); Lab 10 (Galaxies) and Lab 11 (Spectra and Hubble’s Law) both in Physics Lab Book 1. Understand how technological advances and positioning of telescopes have improved our knowledge of the universe Galileo: Refracting telescope Newton: Reflecting telescope Now we use orbiting/extraterrestrial telescopes Also, we can use spectrometry to judge distance 2. Know various facts about elliptical, spiral, and irregular galaxies presented in lecture and lab; understand how the apparent size of spiral galaxies can be used to determine galaxy distance from Earth Spiral Galaxies All about the same size, 100,000 light years in diameter Apparent sizes give relative distances (will use this fact in lab this week) Elliptical Galaxies up to 100,000 light years across Irregular Galaxies “Only” about 30,000 light years across. Each has about 100 Million stars Since spirals are all about 100,00 light years across, their size relates to their distance from us. 3. Understand the importance and uses of spectral analysis and the differences between absorption and emission spectra (including WHY they come about) Continuum spectrum: light from blackbody, full spectrum Absorption spectrum: mostly colors w/ a few black lines; comes from light through a cold gas, sun -> earth. Emission spectrum: mostly black w/ a few colored lines; comes from hot gas (as seen in lab)
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This is a useful tool in chemical analysis – spectra provide atom’s structure and energy levels 4. Know the life history of a star; the kinds of elements that will be produced during that life history (i.e., the types of nucleosynthesis) Could take 100,000 years (100 solar masses) or a billion years (0.05 solar masses) for an interstellar cloud to condense and become a main sequence star Main sequence: More luminous stars, more massive, but fusion progresses more quickly, burn out more quickly Midlife, in equilibrium – collapses in under the influence of gravity, but simultaneously pressure forces are pushing out as hydrogen fuses (our Sun today) Old Age – hydrogen depleted, fusion slows, star collapses, core heats, outer hydrogen layers expand, becomes a giant (our Sun will expand to engulf Earth)
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NS102 Lavalli - Study Guide for Team Exam 2 (4-15-08) -...

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