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Unformatted text preview: Study guide for the study guide, PART 1 ****PART 2 will be posted on the course web page under TAs > Mike. DeFnition section of the Fnal (half of the following will appear on the Fnal) epistemology axiology (value theory) idealism (metaphysical) dualism distribution syllogism validity animism monotheism deism Gedankenexperiment theological concept of God reductio ad absurdum analytic sentence (= tautology) synthetic sentence = contingency epistemological rationalism empiricism secondary qualities classical philosophical skepticism philosophical skepticism possible for/possible that distinction descriptive ethics ethically or morally obligatory ethically or morally permitted deontological ethical theories axiological ethical theories divine command theory: Kant's Categorical Imperative 1st formulation psychological egoism ethical egoism consequentialist ethical theories inclusive formulation of subjective act utilitarianism rule utilitarianism FBPC: Folk Based practice consequentialism or "folk ethics Essay section of the Fnal (you will be required to answer exactly two questions, and will be given three of the questions below to choose from) My purpose here is to (hopefully) make clear what the study guide questions are about. Your exam answers will need to demonstrate understanding of the relevant issues and concepts. The explanations below (in conjunction with the course notes) are meant to help you further your understanding. Youll then need to work out answers in your own words that are concise enough to be able to be written during the allotted exam time. For study guide question 1, see PART 2 (2) Explain and critically discuss act utilitarianism. Be sure to include in your discussion the following concepts: the subjective versus objective formulation of act utilitarianism; the inclusive formulation of the subjective formulation of act utilitarianism; the collective interpretation of subjective act utilitarianism of the inclusive variety; the problem for act utilitarianism involved in the non-payment of taxes case; the advantage of the collective interpretation of subjective act utilitarianism of the inclusive variety over the literal formulation of rule utilitarianism; the problem for both act and rule utilitarianism presented in terms of the bad father/good father example, and the problem for both act and rule utilitarianism concerning integrity raised by Bernard Williams in terms of the chemist and botanist cases. (The source for the answer to this question is pp. 15-18 of the course notes on ethics.) The utilitarian maxim is the rule, Always maximize the good in the world. Act utilitarianism applies this rule directly to individual actions at particular times. In other words, act utilitarianism is the view that the right action, for an agent A at a time t, is that act whose total consequences include a greater total balance of good than would be included in the total consequences of any alternative action open to A at t. balance of good than would be included in the total consequences of any alternative action open to A at t....
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PHIL 100 taught by Professor ? during the Spring '07 term at Maryland.
- Spring '07