Lecture Notes

Lecture Notes - Chapter 1 Historical Aspects of...

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Chapter 1: Historical Aspects of Race/Ethnicity and Health Why is it important to study minority health? o Over the years, the US population has changed. o US will be majority minority by mid 20 th century o 4 states are already majority minority: Texas California New Mexico Hawaii o At least 4 more states will be majority minority by 2010. o Some things that are affecting this: Aging white population Declining white birthrate Higher minority birthrate Decreasing white immigration Increasing Hispanic and Asian immigration Larger proportion of minorities in child bearing ages. Immigration is typically viewed as the primary driver of the change in demographics of the country, but it is much more than this that is causing the change. From census survey, Hispanic origins prefer to be referred to as Hispanics. From census survey Caucasians preferred to be referred to as Whites. From census survey African Americans preferred to be referred to as Blacks. From census survey Native Americans preferred to be referred to as American Indians. Chapter 2: Conceptual Issues in Race/Ethinicity and Health Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, 1775 – Five-fold classification syste: Caucasian or white, Mongolian or yellow, Malayan or brown, Negro or black, and American or red
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o It was discovered that some people did not fall into any of the categories listed. Ashley Montagu, 1942 – wrote a critique on of the concept of race, demonstrated the fallacy of race. The idea of race is political, social concept and not biological. Paper was called “Man’s most dangerous myth: The fallacy of race” By 1970 most scientists believed there was no biological relevance to race. Social scientists argue that race has significant social, economic, and political relevance. Montagu’s paper argued: o Race is not clearly defined o There is no consensus definition o Race is often confounded with other related concepts: ethnicity or nationality o Race has little support from biological and/or genetic scientists One-drop rule – used in 1989. It said that in order for a child to be determined as a race of white, both parents had to be white. If one was black, the child would be declared a black. o One drop of non-white blood resulted in non-white child. “One-drop rule” codified into law in Virginia “Racial Integrity Act of 1924” o In Loving vs. Virginia, 1967 the US Supreme Court declared Virginia anti- miscegenation statute unconstitutional. Now, by law, race of child is determined by race of mother. o But there is still variation in how race is determined from hospital to hospital. In Japan prior to 1985, a child’s race is Japanese only if father is Japanese o Now if either parent is Japanese, the child is considered Japanese. Categories come from Directive 15 (published in 1977 by US Office of Management and
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Lecture Notes - Chapter 1 Historical Aspects of...

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