Chapter_6_Thermochemistry

Chapter_6_Thermochemistry - Click to edit Master subtitle...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style Friday, October 5 Energy: Thermodynamics Click to edit Master subtitle style Thermochemistry Chapter 6 Energy is the capacity to do work Radiant energy comes from the sun and is earths primary energy source Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules Chemical energy is the energy stored within the bonds of chemical substances Nuclear energy is the energy stored within the collection of neutrons and protons in the atom Potential energy is the energy available by virtue of an objects position 6.1 Heat is the transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are at different temperatures. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions Temperature is a measure of the thermal energy. 900C 400C greater thermal energy 6.2 Temperature = Thermal Energy Thermochemistry is the study of heat change in chemical reactions. The system is the specific part of the universe that is of interest in the study. open mass & energy Exchange: closed energy isolated nothing 6.2 Exothermic process is any process that gives off heat transfers thermal energy from the system to the surroundings. Endothermic process is any process in which heat has to be supplied to the system from the surroundings. 2H2 ( g ) + O2 ( g ) 2H2O ( l ) + energy H2O ( g ) H2O ( l ) + energy energy + 2HgO ( s ) 2Hg ( l ) + O2 ( g ) 6.2 energy + H2O ( s ) H2O ( l ) Exothermic Endothermic 6.2 Thermodynamics is the scientific study of the interconversion of heat and other kinds of energy. State functions are properties that are determined by the state of the system, regardless of how that condition was achieved. Potential energy of hiker 1 and hiker 2 is the same even though they took different paths. energy , pressure, volume, temperature 6.3 E = Efinal- Einitial = - = - = - First law of thermodynamics energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. Esystem + Esurroundings = 0 or Esystem = - Esurroundings C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O Exothermic chemical reaction! 6.3 Chemical energy lost by combustion = Energy gained by the surroundings system surroundings Another form of the first law for Esystem 6.3 E = q + w E is the change in internal energy of a system q is the heat exchange between the system and the surroundings w is the work done on (or by) the system w = - P V when a gas expands against a constant external pressure Work Done On the System...
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Chapter_6_Thermochemistry - Click to edit Master subtitle...

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