Chapter_4_Reactions_in_Aqueous_Solution

Chapter_4_Reactions_in_Aqueous_Solution - Aqueous solution...

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Unformatted text preview: Aqueous solution Electrolytes Principles of Chemistry Jonathan Smith Monday, September 24 Chapter 4 Do You Understand Limiting Reagents? In one process, 124 g of Al are reacted with 601 g of Fe 2 O 3 2Al + Fe 2 O 3 Al 2 O 3 + Calculate the mass of Al 2 O 3 g Al mol Al mol Fe 2 O 3 g Fe 2 O 3 OR g mol mol Al needed g Al needed 124 g Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g Al x 1 mol 2 mol Al x 160. g 1 mol x = 367 g Start with 124 g Al need 367 g Have more Fe 2 O 3 (601 g) so Al is limiting 3.9 Use limiting reagent (Al) to calculate amount of product that can be formed. g Al mol Al mol Al 2 O 3 g 124 g Al 1 mol Al 27.0 g Al x 1 mol 2 mol Al x 102. g 1 mol x = 234 g 2Al + Fe 2 O 3 Al 2 O 3 + 3.9 Theoretical Yield is the amount of product that would result if all the limiting reagent reacted. Actual Yield is the amount of product actually obtained from a reaction. % Yield = Actual Yield Theoretical Yield x 100 3.10 Reaction Yield Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4 4.1 A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s) The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount Solution Solvent Solute Soft drink ( l ) Air ( g ) Soft Solder ( s ) H 2 N Pb Sugar, CO 2 O 2 , Ar, CH 4 Sn An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity. nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte 4.1 Electrolyte animations Strong Electrolyte 100% dissociation NaCl ( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) H 2 Weak Electrolyte not completely dissociated CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO- ( aq ) + H + Conduct electricity in solution? Cations (+) and Anions (-) 4.1 Acetic acid = vinegar Ionization of acetic acid CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO- ( aq ) + H + 4.1 A reversible reaction. The reaction can occur in both directions. Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because its ionization in water is incomplete. Hydration is the process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner. H 2 4.1 Aqueous solution Electrolytes Principles of Chemistry Jonathan Smith Tuesday, September 25 Chapter 4 Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity? No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution 4.1 C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 Precipitation Reactions Precipitate insoluble solid that separates from solution molecular equation ionic equation net ionic Pb 2+ + 2NO 3- + 2Na + + 2I- PbI 2 ( s ) + 2Na...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course CHEM 107 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '07 term at Gustavus.

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Chapter_4_Reactions_in_Aqueous_Solution - Aqueous solution...

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