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Chapter_2_Atoms_Molecules_and_Ions

Chapter_2_Atoms_Molecules_and_Ions - Click to edit Master...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style Atoms, Molecules and Ions Chapter 2 Democritus 460 BC- ~ 370 BC • Nothing exists except atoms and empty space; everything else is opinion. • Matter is composed of small indivisible particles, atomos • Plato and Aristotle didn’t buy it… Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms . 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any compound, the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction. 4. A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction. 2.1 2 Law of Multiple Proportions 2.1 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 8 X2Y 16 X 8 Y + Law of Conservation of Mass 2.1 J.J. Thomson, measured mass/charge of e- (1906 Nobel Prize in Physics) 2.2 Cathode Ray Tube 2.2 e- charge = -1.60 x 10-19 C Thomson’s charge/mass of e- = -1.76 x 108 C/g e- mass = 9.10 x 10-28 g Measured mass of e- (1923 Nobel Prize in Physics) 2.2 (Uranium compound) 2.2 2.2 1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus 2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-) 3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e- (1.67 x 10-24 g) α particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 107 m/s (~5% speed of light) (1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) 2.2 atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m Rutherford’s Model of...
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Chapter_2_Atoms_Molecules_and_Ions - Click to edit Master...

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