Chapter06-PREVIEW-modified-2008SPRING

Chapter06-PREVIEW-modified-2008SPRING - Chapter 6...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Properties of waves Wavelength, Frequency & Speed Properties of Waves Wavelength ( ) is the distance between identical points on successive waves. Amplitude is the vertical distance from the midline of a wave to the peak or trough. Properties of Waves Frequency ( ) is the number of waves that pass through a particular point in 1 second (Hz = 1 cycle/s). The speed ( u ) of the wave = The Wave Nature of Light All waves have a characteristic wavelength ( ) and amplitude ( A ). The frequency ( ) of a wave is the number of cycles which pass a point in one second. The speed of a wave ( ) is given by its frequency multiplied by its wavelength: u = For light (speed = c ): = c The Wave Nature of Light The Nature of Waves Maxwell (1873), proposed that visible light consists of electromagnetic waves . Electromagnetic radiation is the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Speed of light ( c ) in vacuum = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s All electromagnetic radiation = c The Wave Nature of Light Modern atomic theory arose out of studies of the interaction of radiation with matter. Electromagnetic radiation moves through a vacuum with a speed of 2.99792458 10 8 m/s. Electromagnetic waves have characteristic wavelengths and frequencies. Example: visible radiation has wavelengths between 400 nm (violet) and 750 nm (red). Long wavelength Low Frequency Short wavelength High frequency Electromagnetic Radiation The light that humans can see is visible light (colors) and corresponds to about one octave [ doubling of frequency ] of electromagnetic radiation ( a.k.a. radiant energy). All electromagnetic radiation travels at the same velocity: the speed of light ( c ), 2.998 10 8 m/s. Electromagnetic radiation has wave-like characteristics due to periodic oscillations in its electric and magnetic fields. Waves To understand the electronic structure of atoms, one must understand the nature of electromagnetic radiation. The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves is the wavelength ( ). Wavelength Most of what we know about the electronic structure of atoms comes from studying how light is absorbed or emitted. For example, an object appears red if it reflects red light or absorbs green light. This is determined by the electronic structure of the compound. Wave-like Nature of Light Since all electromagnetic radiation moves at the speed of light, c (m/s) = c 1/s m m/s A laser used in eye surgery to fuse detached retinas produces radiation with a wavelength of 640.0 nm....
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Chapter06-PREVIEW-modified-2008SPRING - Chapter 6...

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