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CHAPTER THREE: SOCIALIZATION FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIALIZATION 1. Socialization: the process of social interaction by which people acquire those behaviors essential for effective participation in society, the process of becoming a social being. 2. Nature and Nurture: a. Human socialization presupposes that an adequate genetic endowment and an adequate environment are available. Hereditary and environmental factors interact with and affect each other. 3. Theories of Socialization: a. Include functionalist and conflict theory perspectives as well as three microlevel approaches. b. Social learning theory emphasizes conditioning and observational learning . i. Conditioning: a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior determine the probability of its future occurrences. ii. Observational learning: learning that occurs when people reproduce the responses they observe in other people, either real or fictional; also referred to as modeling or imitation. c. Cognitive developmental theory argues that socialization proceeds differently in the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, operational, and formal operations stages. d. Reflexive behavior: Actions, through which people observe, interpret, evaluate, communicate with, and attempt to control themselves. 4. Agents of Socialization a. One of the most important early agents of socialization is the family. As children grow, peers and schools become important agents to socializations. i. Mass media, television, also serve as agents. 5. Social Communication a. Humans must be able to communicate in order to adapt to their social environment. b. Communication: process by which people transmit information, ideas, attitudes, and mental states to one another. i.
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course SOC 202 taught by Professor Xiauqinwuturner during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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