BASC_201_-_Lecture_19_(Mar_18_-_Prof._Lefebvre)

BASC_201_-_Lecture_19_(Mar_18_-_Prof._Lefebvre) - 19 8...

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Tuesday, March 18, 2008 (BASC 201: Lecture 19) Prof. Lefebvre 8 MARCH 18, 2008 – Prof. Lefebvre 19
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Tuesday, March 18, 2008 (BASC 201: Lecture 19) Prof. Lefebvre Intelligence 3 Experiments discussed on previous lectures : Episodic memory: corvids (crow-like animal) Cooperation: chimps and capuchins Counting: Macaques Mirror image recognition: great apes, dolphins and elephants are capable of self consciousness Language: seen in parrots, bonobos, dogs Tool manufacture: NC crows Imitation: seen in apes (not monkeys) and many birds The test method in the above graph assumes that the species that get the “yes” answer are above the line and those that get the “no” are below the line. The cognition scale is a quantitative scale used to predict a positive correlation between brain size and cognitive ability. Points on the scale may represent the number of times a particular animal has preformed a certain task. The only exception in this graph is in imitation in birds—that is, why can small-brained birds (ie. Quails) imitate certain tasks but bigger-brained chimps can’t (apes can)? Reformulating the experiment Thus, instead of doing tests on a few species, Lefebvre examined the taxonomic distribution of operational measures of intelligence and relative brain size under presumed measures of intelligence and of relative brain size under presumed selection pressures in particular contexts. Operational measures: the measurement utilized to evaluate one’s standings for a type of intelligence that is hard to measure. An example is cGPA. Academic excellence has many factors and while cGPA is a poor measure of academic excellence, it does give us a number or statistic for us to compare with other students. Experimental Operational Measures of Intelligence: For each measure we will think of possible ways each could have evolved. Measures: Innovation, tool use, rehearsal learning (test of flexibility. It involves teaching an animal a certain thing and after it has learned it; is taught the opposite and must relearn it. This process is done repeatedly and over time, more intelligent animals are expected to develop strategies so that they don’t have to relearn continuously. They might predict the switch and not make a mistake. Rehearsal learning is measured by the number of errors the animal makes; those that develop strategies will have much fewer errors than those that don’t.), social learning, deception, play. Contexts: generalist vs. specialist lifestyle; living in social groups brain size test
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Tuesday, March 18, 2008 (BASC 201: Lecture 19) Prof. Lefebvre Innovative behavior This is commonly seen when organism are consuming something that isn’t usually part of their average diet. In the early 20 th century there was an epidemic of little birds in England opening milk bottles and drinking the cream because it can’t digest the CHO in the milk. Then we would compile the number of species of each particular animal in
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BASC_201_-_Lecture_19_(Mar_18_-_Prof._Lefebvre) - 19 8...

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