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Biology Final Review

Biology Final Review - Biology Final Review Chapter 1...

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Biology Final Review Chapter 1- Concepts in Biology Biology is the study of life Life includes seven things o Consuming energy o Reproduction o Adaptation o Trying to survive o Responding to the environment o Growth o Regulation Hierarchy of Biological Organization- Biology extends from microscopic to global scale o Atoms o Molecules o Cell o Tissue o Organ o Organ system o Multi-cellular organism o Population o Community (many different populations) o Ecosystem (communities but with non-living things included) o Biosphere (all habitable areas and atmosphere) Emergent Properties of Biological Systems o Whole is more than sum of parts o System- combination of components that form a more complex organization o Emergent properties- new properties that arise in each step up in hierarchy Reductionism o Reducing complex systems into simpler manageable components. o These systems need to be reduced to be studied, but it disturbs them when we study them Systems Biology o Creates models of the dynamic behavior of biological systems o How changes in one part affect the whole Inquiry in the Exploration of Life o Inquiry is the search for exploration o Biology blends two processes of scientific inquiry Discovery science(Descriptive Science) Describes structures/processes through observation and analysis Inductive reasoning- making generalizations based on large number of observations Hypothesis Based Science Asks specific questions, proposing and testing hypotheses. (If, then logic) Deductive reasoning- general principles to specific results Scientific Theory o Theory is an explanation broad in scope and supported by large body of evidence Unity and Diversity o Diversity is the Hallmark of life o 1.8 million identified and named species Structure and Function o Form and function are intimately related and all levels of biological organization Chapter 2- Chemical Bonds Background o Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Made of elements o Element- substance that cannot be broken down more with chemical reactions. o Compound- two or more different elements combined in a fixed ration. o 25 essential elements o 4 of the essential elements are oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and make up 96% of living. The rest of the elements are called trace elements. Elements o Properties depend on structure of atoms o Atom is the smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element. o Subatomic particles Protons- one Dalton, positive Neutrons- one Dalton, no charge Electrons- no mass, negative
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o Atomic number- number of protons (unique to each element) o Mass number- protons + neutrons (approximations of atomic mass, and not always same for an element) Isotopes o Atoms of a given element may occur in different forms. o
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