Psych Ch 5 - Chapter 5- Developing Through the Life Span...

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Chapter 5- Developing Through the Life SpanHow do we change physically, cognitively, and socially from the womb to thetomb?Infancy and ChildhoodAdolescenceAdulthoodMajor Issues in Developmental PsychologyNature vs. Nurture: How do genetic inheritance (nature) andexperience (nurture) influence our development?Continuity/ Stages: Is development a gradual continuous process likeriding an escalator or does it proceed through a series of separatestages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?Stability/ Change: Do our early personality and intellectual traitspersist through life, or do we become different people as we age?Prenatal Development and the NewbornConceptiona)Sperm cells surround an ovumb)As one sperm penetrates the egg’s jellylike outer coating, aseries of chemical events begins that will cause sperm and egg tofuse into a single cell. Development commences.Prenatal Developmenta)The embryo grows and develops rapidly. At 40 days, the spine isvisible and the arms and legs are beginning to grow.b)5 days later, the inch long embryo’s proportions have begun tochange.
c)By the end of the second month, when thefetal periodbegins,facial features, hands and feet have formed.d)As the fetus enters the fourth month, it is about 3 ounces andcould fit in the palm of your hand.Prenatal exposure toteratogens,which are harmful agents such asviruses and drugs, that increase the risk for problems later in life. Forexample, smoking during pregnancy increases ricks of ADHD inchildren.The effects of alcohol on the fetus and later in life.On the bright side, good prenatal nutrition has been linked to positiveoutcomes, such as having higher IQ in childhood. Improved prenatalnutrition is one possible explanation of historical increases inintelligence test scores.The Competent NewbornContrary toWilliam James’assertion that they are little “blank slates”that experience the world as a “blooming, buzzing confusion,”newborns come into the world equipped with automatic responsesideally suited for survival.For example, when something touches an infant’s cheek, it reflexivelyturns toward that touch, opens its mouth, androotsfor a nipple. Aninfant will also reliably turn its head toward a human voice.Face recognitionMother’s smellInfants also showhabituation-a simple form of learning that occurswhen an organism shows a decrease in response to some stimulusafter repeated presentation of that stimulus.Studies of habituation in infants reveals that they are sensitive tonovelty in their environments, and this is a window into the infant’smental processes.2
Infancy and Childhood:Physical DevelopmentBrain development unfolds thoughmaturation- a biologicallyprogrammed growth process. In humans, at birth, the brain isimmature, but as the child matures, neural networks grow increasinglymore complex. As they so, the infant’s capabilities surge…Motor DevelopmentAs an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, more complicated

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Term
Spring
Professor
Caldwell
Tags
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Chapter 5, Dr Weaver, older adults, Attachment Differences

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