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exam2 bme - Biomechanics 1 pulmonary circulation to and...

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Biomechanics 1. pulmonary circulation- to and from the lungs. Systemic circulation- everything else. 2. vein- tunica externa(adventitia), Tunica media, tunica intima, endothelium. Thinner walls with less pressure and are less elastic and walls are larger. Contain valves that prevent backflow. Artery- Tunica externa(adventitia), tunica media, tunica intima ( internal elastic membrance plus endothelium). They have thicker walls and are often corrugated on sections. Walls contract if not under pressure. 3. elastic, muscular, arterioles, capillaries, 4. muscle contraction squeezes blood upwards to brain and the valves prevent backflow. Made of folds of the tunica intima. 5. right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle. 6. inferior and superior vena cava(returns to heart) right atrium right ventricle Right and left pulmonary arteries right and left pulmonary veins left atrium left ventricle aorta(pumps to body) 7. tricuspid is between the two right chambers, and mitral is between the two left chambers. Pulmonary is between the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries an daortic is between the left ventricle and aorta. 8. systole is the contracton caused by ejection of blood into another chamber or to arterial system. Diastole is relaxation when the chambers are filled 9. 1 st sound is early ventricular contraction due to cloruse of the AV valves. 2 nd is early relaxation of ventricle due to closing of semilunar valve. Other sounds are due to the turbulent flow into ventricles or artrial contraction. Also valve problems. 10. blood volume is five liters on average. Cardiac output is heart rate times stroke volume. Stroke volume is how much is released in one heartbeat and is usually 80 mL. pulse pressure is the systolic pressure minus the diastolic pressure and is proportional to stroke volume. mean arterial pressure is diastolic plus one third of pulse pressure. 11. Blood is made of formed elements and plasma. Hematocrit is the percentage of whole blood occupied by cellular elements. a. Formed elements i. Red blood cells or erhythrocytes- 1mL has 4-6 billion RBC's. Biconcave shape with thin center and thick outer. Disk shaped. Made of organelles for transporting respiratory gases. 95% hemoglobin. Do not have nuclei or ribosomes so they cannot divide or produce on their own and live about 120 days and are made in red bone marrow. ii. White blood cells or leukocytes- 1mL has 6-9 thousand. Shape of granulocytes and agranulocytes. Contain a nucleus and lysosomes and vesicles. Protect the body against pathogens and removes toxins and wastes. Survive from days to years and are produced in the bone marrow. iii. Platelets- 1mL contains 150-500 thousand. Flat disks. No nucleus but have enzymes that for blood clotting. Form temporary wall on the cut and contract once a clot forms.
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