10.14.14_Chap 8_Fall 2014_Biol 1030_for BB - Chapter 8 The...

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Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and InheritanceBiol 1030Fall 2014
Figure 8.0-1
Cell Division and ReproductionSections 8.1-8.2
Cell division and reproductionOrganisms reproduce the same kind of organismsCell divisionis also reproduction“daughter” cells are genetically identical to “parent” cellsDue to each receiving a set of chromosomes
Cell division and reproductionOn an organismal scale, cell division can result in:1. reproduction2. growth (multicellular)3. replacement & repair4. sperm and egg productionTwo methods of organismal reproductionAsexual: no sperm or egg involved, one parent producing offspring, identical geneticsSexual: involves egg and sperm, more than one parent, offspring gets genetic info from each parent
Prokaryotic reproductionCell division = binary fissionConcept that one cell will grow larger, split itself in half and grow largerThree stagesChromosome duplicates; copies moveCell elongatesPlasma membrane pinches in the center; more cell wall forms. Parent cell becomes two daughter cells.
Figure 8.2A_s3PlasmamembraneCell wallDuplication of the chromosomeand separation of the copiesContinued elongation of thecell and movement of the copiesProkaryoticchromosome123Division intotwo daughter cells
Figure 8.2BProkaryotic chromosomes
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and MitosisSections 8.3-8.10
Eukaryotic chromosomesMost DNA is stored as chromosomesChromatinLoose stateContains DNA and proteinsPurpose of proteins: maintaining structure of DNA, help control gene expression (which parts of the DNA are being used)Coils up when cells get ready to divide = chromosomes
Figure 8.3a
Mader,Figure 9.3centromerekinetochoreSister chromatidschromatid
Figure 8.3b-0ChromosomesChromosomal DNAmoleculesChromosomeduplicationSisterchromatidsSister chromatidsCentromereSeparationof sisterchromatidsanddistributioninto twodaughtercells
The cell cycleFrom formation of a cell to division of a cellTwo stagesInterphase (duplication of contents)G1SG2Mitotic phase (division)MitosisFurther divided into multiple stagesCytokinesis
Figure 8.4G1(first gap)S(DNA synthesis)G2(second gap)MCytokinesisMitosisINTERPHASEPHASETTMIOIC
MitosisDivision of the nucleus and its contentsMovement of chromosomes depends on the mitotic spindleGroup of microtubules that emerge from centrosomes
MitosisStagesProphasePrometaphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophase
Figure 8.5_leftINTERPHASEMITOSISProphasePrometaphaseCentrosomeEarly mitoticspindleChromatinFragments ofthe nuclear envelopeKinetochoreCentrosomes(with centriole pairs)CentriolesNuclearenvelopePlasmamembraneChromosome,consisting of twosister chromatidsCentromereSpindlemicrotubules

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