Forensic Psych (2) - Eyewitness Testimony Its shitty...

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Chapter 18 / Exercise 1
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Albrecht/Albrecht
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Eyewitness Testimony It’s shitty. January 26 th 2016 Memory as an Adaptation - Main reason we have a good memory is for remembering social information - Provides us with information in order to survive properly in the world 1) We don’t have to remember everything a. After the age of ~2 b. No information about repeated events (won’t remember what coins look like well) c. Memory is a reconstruction from pieces i. First tend to forget things with no emotional content first ii. Then tend to remember good things and forget bad things 2) Memory need not 100% accurate a. More adaptive if it is not accurate – don’t want to remember negative things because it affects us negatively to remember poor situations b. Blake et al. Recognition of Apple Logo i. Poor recognition of the logo in apple, pc, or mixed users ii. No point in remembering it Memory Processes Encoding These affect encoding of a memory 1) Exposure duration: in lineup studies, longer exposure during the crime is better to properly identify the suspect 2) Arousal level: moderate is better than high or low, problem is that most crime situations are in high arousal 3) Distraction: inattentional, change blindness, perpetrators, weapon focus a. Inattentional bias – Simons and Chabris – ask people to count something, and a gorilla walks through the screen, half the subjects cannot remember the gorilla i. Selective attention to what you want b. Change blindness – Simons and Chabris – don’t notice the change of a person when giving directions or c. More Perpetrators – much more likely to remember if there is 1 person vs if there is many people d. Weapon focus – people pay attention to the weapon, and not the face of the person 4) Distinctiveness: if the event is distinctive, then you are more likely to remember a. flashbulb memories – people remember where they were and what they were doing when a world-wide event occurs Storage and Retrieval 1) Labelling: what an item is called affects their impression of the item a. Ex. told an image is a wheel or a sun, later will draw something closer to the descriptive term than to the image that actually was shown 2) Prejudice: your biases/beliefs can alter a situation a. Ex. Picture of black man in a suit and a white man in workers clothes. People from the south more likely to say that the black man was in workers clothing and was holidng a weapon b. Ex. Dartmouth vs Cornell football game. People remember the bad plays/infractions of the other team more than their own team 3) Inferences: we have an idea about something, and fill in gaps with our idea
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Fraud Examination
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Chapter 18 / Exercise 1
Fraud Examination
Albrecht/Albrecht
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a. Ex. subjects told to wait in the professor’s office, as the experimenter is not there, then taken to the ‘research setting’. They are asked questions, most people said there were books in the office when there wasn’t at all.

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