POL 02 - March 7, 2008

POL 02 - March 7, 2008 - 1 March 7, 2008 Democratization...

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1 March 7, 2008 1 Democratization and modernization in South Korea Political Institutions in South Korea Political Conflict (Parties and Ideology) in South Korea Modernization Theory 2 Industrialization Protest, demand for representation Economic growth Literacy & Urbanization
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2 Stages of British Democratization • Stage 1: Evolution of concept of property and concept of representation to protect property 3 concept of representation to protect property. • Stage 2: Evolution of representative institutions. • Stage 3: Evolution of checks on executive power. • Stage 4: Modernization of economy and social transformation. • Stage 5: Extension of right to vote Stages of Korean Democratization • Stage 4: Modernization of economy and social transformation. 4 • Stage 1: Evolution of concept of property and concept of representation to protect property. • Stage 2: Evolution of representative institutions. • Stage 3: Evolution of checks on executive power. • Stage 5: Extension of right to vote
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3 South Korea, 1950s 5 Ruling class Entrepreneurs, and middle class Subsistence farmers Modernization in South Korea: 1960 - 1990 6 • Industrialization (export-oriented) • Urbanization (Seoul increases 10-fold) • Education (heavy investment by gov’t) Economic growth (highest yearly • Economic growth (highest yearly growth in GNP in world for about 20 years – 9%)
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4 South Korea, 1980s and 90s Wealthy, ruling 7 class Entrepreneurs, and middle class Subsistence farmers and poor Why democratize? • Can a society remain non-responsive, repressive in the wake of economic 8 growth and profound social change? Population today About 50 million
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5 South Korea as example of modernization theory • Korea occupied by Japan for 50 years BEFORE WWII. • After WWII North and South Korea are divided 9 • After WWII, North and South Korea are divided. • North Korea invades South Korea in 1950. • 1950-1953 Korean War. • Current Situation – Communist North Korea – Capitalist South Korea South Korea as example of modernization theory • 1953. South Korea is underdeveloped, poor, agrarian society, recovering from war 10 – GDP per capita: $194 • 1961.
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POL 02 - March 7, 2008 - 1 March 7, 2008 Democratization...

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