Unformatted text preview: Gov 312L Spring 2007 Week 12
A New Era of U.S.Latin American Relations 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Cold War came to an end because of: Excessive defense spending Economic problems in the U.S.S.R. Declining support for Soviet ideology The rise of Gorbachev The decline of the Soviet Union The End of the Cold War 6. The rise of military unipolarity: the U.S. is the only military superpower 7. Increased economic multipolarity: numerous economic powers 8. Expanding political multipolarity--new actors The New International System 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Where is the International System Headed?
Smith's six scenarios Global Hegemony for the U.S. Intensification of multipolarity Clashes of civilizations Formation of rival blocs NorthSouth divide Continuing globalization U.S.-Latin American Relations at the end of the Cold War
16.U.S. influence in Latin America declined from 1960s1980s 17.But it rose at the end of the Cold War 18."Hegemony by default" 19.EC focused on Eastern Europe 20.Russia and Japan had their own economic problems 21.The U.S. economy dwarfs Latin America's 22.The U.S. is the single largest trading partner of all Latin American nations 23.The U.S. is also the region's largest foreign investor 24.Latin America depends more on the U.S. than the U.S. depends on it U.S. Economic Dominance of Latin America 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The U.S. also has a lot of cultural influence in Latin America: Movies Television Language Fashion Food U.S. Cultural Dominance But Latin America also has a lot of cultural influence in the United States 25.The end of the Cold War reduced ideological polarization in the region 26.Communist ideology was weakened by the breakup of the Soviet Union 27.Soviet troops left Cuba and Russia ceased to play a role in the region 28.The U.S. and others focused less on the Communist threat Reduced Ideological Polarization 29. 30. Smith identifies a number of potential concerns: The end of the Cold War may lead to the marginalization of the region 31. U.S. policy may become increasingly balkanized 32. Electoral politics may drive policy 33. U.S. may focus exclusively on Mexico Problems in U.S.-Latin American Policy after the Cold War Six main issues: 34. Drugs 35. Immigration 36. Trade and investment The Main Issues in U.S. Policy toward Latin America 37. 38. 39. Environment Democracy and human rights National security Four main subregions of interest: 40. Mexico: Economics, border security, immigration, and drugs 41. Caribbean and Central America: Drugs, immigration, and democracy 42. Andean Countries: Drugs and democracy 43. Southern Cone and Brazil: Economics, environmental issues Varying Sub-regional Emphases of U.S. Policy 6. U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region include support for: 7. Electoral bodies 8. International electoral observation 9. Modernization of the state 10. Improvement of judiciary 11. Transformation of security agencies 12. Reform of military These efforts have achieved some success. U.S. Efforts to Promote Democracy The U.S. and the Organization of American States (OAS) 13. The U.S. has also worked with the OAS to promote democracy 14. In 1991 the OAS adopted Resolution 1080. 15. It instructs the OAS to call a meeting when there is a threat to democracy. 16. In 1997 the Washington Protocol went into effect. 17. It provides for the suspension of a member state if democracy is overthrown. 44. 45. 46. 47. Resolution 1080 was invoked in: In 1991 with the overthrow of Aristide in Haiti. In 1992 with Fujimori's selfcoup in Peru. In 1993 with Serrano's attempted selfcoup in Guatemala. 48. In 1996 with the Paraguayan crisis Resolution 1080 in Action 49. The U.S. has a mixed record of success in promoting democracy 50. Failure in Cuba 51. Failure in Venezuela 52. Failure in Colombia 53. Belated success in Guatemala and El Salvador 54. Minimal success in Peru A Mixed Record of Success U.S. Intervention and Democracy in Panama 55.U.S. invaded Panama in 1989 and overthrew Manuel Noriega 56.It installed Guillermo Endara as president 57.U.S. military intervention in Panama led to democracy 58.But the invasion was prompted more by narcotics issues than democracy U.S. Intervention and Democracy in Haiti 18. The U.S. intervened in Haiti in 1994 to restore Jean Bertrand Aristide as president 19. Aristide was overthrown in a 1991 coup 20. In its wake, thousands of poor Haitians fled the brutal military regime 21. The U.S. was on the verge of invading when the military abandoned power 22. The U.S. then occupied the country and installed Aristide as president 23. However, democracy in Haiti remains troubled The U.S. and the Preservation of Democracy in Paraguay 24. The U.S. has played a generally positive role in Paraguay 25. In 1996, President Wasmosy asks General Oviedo to resign 26. He refuses to do so and threatens Wasmosy 27. The U.S. ambassador backs up Wasmosy and offers him a haven 28. Wasmosy offers Oviedo the Ministry of Defense, which Oviedo accepts 29. Wasmosy then retracts the offer 59.Oviedo subsequently runs for president 60.He wins the party nomination but is then convicted of sedition 61.His VP candidate, Cubas, takes over and wins the presidency 62.He releases Oviedo from prison 63.After protests and killings, however, Cubas is forced to step down The Paraguayan Crisis Continues 30. 31. According to Valenzuela: Paraguayan democracy prevailed because of international support 32. Impromptu actions by diplomats helped save the day 33. Resolution 1080 of the OAS helps deter coups 34. However, it does not facilitate quick action 35. Mechanisms need to be develop that will enable early, coordinated response Lessons from the Paraguayan Crisis ...
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- Spring '07