Unformatted text preview: Gov 312L Spring 2006 Week 11 The U.S. in El Salvador
Today from 23 pm in CBA 4.326
Review Session: 0. 1. 2. 3. Four peasant revolts between 1870 and 1900 Major peasant rebellion in 1932 following a military coup The revolt was led by Agustin Farabundo Marti Peasants killed some landlords, but then were massacred by the military. 4. 10,00020,000 peasants died A History of Peasant Rebellion 5. High income inequality and scarce land helped breed the rebellions 6. El Salvador is densely populated, but a few families own much of the land 7. In 1931, a U.S. military attache warned that this would breed revolts 8. Income inequality worsened over time 9. By 1975 40% of peasants were landless Peasant Rebellion and Inequality Military Rule and Repression th 0. The military ruled El Salvador for much of the 20th Century 1. The policies of the military regimes varied, but none were democratic 2. The military blocked the election of Jose Napoleon Duarte in 1972 3. Duarte was imprisoned, tortured, then exiled. 10. In the early 1970s, a number of guerrilla movements emerged. 11. They were founded by leftist intellectuals, but were based in the peasantry 12. The guerrillas fought among themselves, but eventually formed the FMLN 13. The military responded brutally attacking anyone suspected of taking part The Emergence of the FMLN 4. Under Nixon, the U.S. did not speak up much about human rights in ES. 5. Under Carter, the U.S. did speak up and suspended aid in 1977 6. The CIA did not initially believe the FMLN was a serious threat 7. As concerns grew, the U.S. downplayed human rights issues The U.S. and Human Rights in El Salvador 14. In 1979 a military coup brought to power a new group of officers 15. They brought reformminded civilians into the junta 16. The junta sought to carry out some social reforms 17. These led to popular mobilization and a violent military backlash 18. The civilian members of the junta resigned The 1979 military coup The role of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) 8. The U.S. then insisted that the PDC join the junta 9. The PDC was unable to rein in the military's death squads 10.They even killed the PDC attorney general 11.This led one member of the PDC to leave the military junta 12.Duarte then joined the junta The Assassination of Archbishop Oscar Romero
13.Archbishop Romero criticized human rights abuses and inequalities 14.He was assassinated by a military death squad in March 1980 15.At his funeral, the military opened fire, killing 50 people 19. The six guerrilla organizations united in 1980 under a single command 20. In April 1980, the civilian opposition also united in a single organization 21. It consists of parties, unions, and professional organizations 22. It subsequently goes underground 23. In November, its leadership is captured and killed 24. It then allies itself with the FMLN The Opposition Unites 16.In Dec. 1980, four U.S. church workers are raped and killed 17. The U.S. suspends all aid to ES 18.The junta promises to punish those responsible 19.They also agree to make Duarte president 20.Carter then restores aid The Carter administration's dilemma 21.When Reagan took office, he sought to boost support for El Salvador 22.Congress resisted efforts to boost military assistance 23.Reagan also sought to improve the human rights situation 24.He pushed the country to democratize The Reagan administration and El Salvador 25.The U.S. opposed efforts by Roberto D'Aubuisson to become president 26.Instead, the U.S. promoted Duarte 27.Duarte defeated D'Aubuisson in the 1984 presidential elections 28.As a result, the U.S. congress boosted support to the country 29.Duarte could not control the military or stop human rights abuses Efforts to Promote Duarte 30.Duarte made little progress in negotiations to end the civil war 31.Nor could Duarte defeat the FMLN militarily 32.Over time, a stalemate emerged A Stalemate Emerges 25. In 1989, Alfredo Cristiani of D'Aubuisson's party is elected president 26. He carries out peace negotiations 27. In 1992, the government and the guerrillas sign an agreement 28. The FMLN lays down its arms and converts itself into a political party 29. The government promises to purge the military and carry out other reforms The Peace Process 33.The end of the Cold War facilitated the peace process 34.More importantly, both sides concluded they could not win Why Peace Broke Out ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2008 for the course GOV 312L taught by Professor Madrid during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '07