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Unformatted text preview: Growing Criticism of U.S Policy toward Latin America
0. From Latin America 1. From other foreign countries 2. From nongovernmental organizations 3. From the U.S. congress THE CENTRAL AMERICAN BATTLEGROUND GOV 312L Spring 2006 Week 10 U.S. Policy toward Latin America under President Carter 4. Carter vows to make "human rights the soul of U.S. foreign policy" 5. He creates an assistant secretary for human rights 6. He increases reporting on human rights abuses 7. He cuts off aid to some countries that engage in abuses 8. Carter also negotiates a treaty on the Panama Canal 9. It calls for the canal to be turned over to Panama in 1999 10.This treaty is vigorously opposed by conservatives 11.It narrowly passes the Senate The Panama Canal Treaty 12.Some Senators who supported it are defeated in their reelection bids U.S. Policy toward Latin America under Reagan
13.Reagan criticizes the Panama Canal treaty 14.Reagan reverses Carter's human rights policies 15.Reagan focuses on defeating the spread of Communism in the region 16.The main battleground for this new policy is Central America The History of U.S. Involvement in Nicaragua 17.Viewed as a potential site for a canal 18.Ruled by William Walker from 18551857 19.Occupied by U.S. troops for most of 19091933 20.Sandino's guerilla war against U.S. marines and their collaborators 21.Sandino's capture and execution th 22.The Somozas ruled Nicaragua for most of the 20th century 23.They came to own 20% of the country's land 24.They did not tolerate dissent 25.They used their antiCommunism to win U.S. support The Rise of the Somoza Family 26. The Sandinista National Liberation Front emerges in the early 1960s 27. It is composed of three main branches 28. It makes little initial progress The Emergence of the Sandinistas Growing Disenchantment with Somoza 29.A 1972 earthquake devastates Managua 30.Somoza siphons off much of the relief money 31.Somoza takes over companies that compete with his family's firms 32.Business leaders call on him to resign 33.In January 1978, Pedro Chamorro a main critic of Somoza is assassinated 34.The opposition calls for strikes and the private sector joins in. 35.Violent uprisings in shantytowns 36.The U.S. seeks to distance itself from Somoza 37.Somoza makes some concessions 38.The Sandinistas' raid on Congress The Revolution Begins 39.In late 1978, the U.S. cuts military aid to Somoza 40.It enlists the OAS to mediate U.S. Pressure on Somoza 41.Somoza refuses to resign before the election or allow it to be supervised 42.The U.S. then ends all assistance to Somoza and recalls its ambassador 43.In June 1979, Nicaragua's second largest city falls to the FSLN Failed Efforts to Control the Transition 0. The Sandinistas name a governing junta 1. The U.S. unsuccessfully tries to weaken FSLN control of this junta 2. The junta does agree to hold free elections and have a diverse cabinet 3. The U.S. unsuccessfully tries to get the OAS to send troops to Nicaragua 4. Under U.S. pressure, Somoza retires senior officers and resigns himself 44.The new leader, Francisco Urcuyo, refuses to hand over power 45.The U.S. ambassador then departs 46.The National Guard gradually disintegrates 47.The Sandinistas fight their way into Nicaragua 48.By the end, the war had cost 45,000 lives and destroyed the economy The Triumph of the Sandinistas GOV 312L Spring 2006 Week 10-2 U.S.-Nicaraguan Relations after the Sandinista Revolution
5. The Carter Administration initially tried to maintain good relations 6. The Sandinistas also tried not to alienate the United States 7. Nevertheless, relations steadily deteriorated because of: 8. The Sandinistas' left wing policies 9. The presence of Cuban military advisers 10. Sandinista aid to Salvadoran guerrillas U.S. Nicaraguan-Relations under Carter 11. The U.S. was also concerned about the Sandinistas' growing political dominance: 12. In Dec. 1979, Sandinistas assume control of more cabinet positions 13. In April 1980, the two nonFSLN members of the junta resign 14. In Aug. 1980, the Sandinistas announce that elections won't be held until 1985 Sandinista Efforts to Consolidate Control of the Government 49. When Reagan takes office, relations worsen considerably 50. Reagan argued that the Sandinistas were a threat to the U.S because they were: 51. Communists U.S.-Nicaraguan Relations under Reagan 52. 53. 54. Close allies of the Soviet Union Authoritarians Exporters of Revolution 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Reagan administration's criticisms of the Sandinistas were exaggerated because: The Sandinistas were socialists rather than communists Only a small percent of their trade was with the Soviet Bloc Most of their aid came from W. Europe or Latin America They tolerated some dissent and opposition Their support for the Salvadoran guerrillas was limited Flaws in the Reagan's administration views 55. Under Reagan, the U.S. sought to overthrow the Sandinistas by: 56. Establishing the Contras 57. Mining Nicaraguan harbors 58. Carrying out military exercises in Honduras 59. Cutting its own aid and trying to persuade others to do the same 60. Voting against multilateral aid The U.S. campaign to overthrow the Sandinistas 15. 16. 17. 18. The U.S. Congress resisted Reagan's policies, by: Cutting off aid to the Contras in 198485 Permitting only nonlethal aid in 198586 and 198788 Prohibiting funds to be used to overthrow the Sandinistas (Boland Amendment) 19. Restricting the involvement of U.S. intelligence agencies Congressional Resistance to Reagan's Policies 20. The National Security Council thus sought to fund the Contras by: 21. Soliciting money from private citizens and foreign governments 22. Carrying out secret arms sales to Iran and sending the proceeds to the Contras These measures were illegal and created a scandal when they were discovered The Iran-Contra Scandal 23. The Contadora Group proposed a peace treaty, asking the Sandinistas to: 24. End aid to the Salvadoran guerrillas 25. Send home Sovietbloc advisers 26. Ban foreign military bases 27. Limit the size of its army 28. Permit verification of compliance The Sandinistas agreed, but the U.S. refused to go along with it. The Peace Process 29. The Costa Rican president then initiated a new peace process 30. The new peace plan required all Central American countries to democratize 31. This included holding elections and opening negotiations with insurgents 32. Reagan agreed to it because the IranContra scandal had undermined support for the Contras Oscar Arias' Peace Initiative 61. 62. 63. The Sandinistas agreed to the plan largely because: The Contra war had taken a major economic toll The Sandinistas believed that they could win the elections Sandinista support for the plan 33. The U.S. pushed the opposition to unite behind Violeta Chamorro 34. The U.S. heavily subsidized her campaign 35. Polls suggested the Sandinistas would win, but Chamorro won 55% of the vote 36. The Sandinistas agreed to give up power, but took some properties first 37. Chamorro relied on some Sandinista support to govern The 1990 Elections ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2008 for the course GOV 312L taught by Professor Madrid during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '07