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Unformatted text preview: Gov 312L Week 8 U.S. Intervention in Chile
0. A long democratic history 1. An effective legislature 2. A strong civil society 3. High political participation 4. Closely contested elections 5. Jorge Alessandri's (31.6%) narrow victory over Salvador Allende (28.9%) in the 1958 elections Democracy in Chile U.S. Intervention in the 1964 Elections 6. The dissolution of the right wing coalition 7. Rightwing support for Eduardo Frei and the Christian Democratic party 8. U.S. fears of a victory by Salvador Allende and the left 9. U.S. support for Frei$2.6 million 10.Frei's resounding victory 0. The U.S. continued to be involved in Chile during Frei's tenure Frei launches his middle path reform program, which includes: The Frei Administration 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chileanization of copper industry Land reform Grassroots organizing Frei raises more expectations than he can satisfy. 11.The right decides to nominate its own candidate-- Jorge Alessandri 12.The Christian Democrats nominate Radomiro Tomic 13.Salvador Allende is the candidate of the Popular Unity coalition (Socialists and Communists) The Candidates in the 1970 Elections U.S. Intervention in the 1970 Elections 6. The State Dept. is skeptical about intervening, but the White House and the CIA favor it. 7. The CIA spends $1 million trying to defeat Allende 8. It funds rightwing groups and a media scare campaign 9. It tries to sow dissent on the left 10. U.S. companies (ITT) also make money available to defeat Allende The Effects of U.S. Intervention in the 1970 Elections
14.Worsened polarization 15.Exacerbated financial panic 16.Exposed CIA's assets in the country 17.Failed to defeat Allende 18.Allende wins 36.3% of the vote, Alessandri 34.9% and Tomic 27.8% 19.Congress had to pick the president since no one had won a majority U.S. Efforts to Prevent Allende from Taking Office: Track I 20.Track 1 aimed to persuade Congress to elect Alessandri over Allende 21.The plan was that Alessandri would then resign, which would force new elections that Frei could win 22.Funds were authorized for bribing Congressmen 23.A propaganda campaign was initiated 24.Frei, however, refused to participate 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The U.S. also sought to foment a military coup: Helped create an economic crisis Informed Chilean military leaders that assistance would end if Allende took office The CIA let numerous key officials know that the U.S. would favor a coup The CIA established contacts with several groups of plotters Nixon asked the CIA to keep these activities secret U.S. Efforts to Prevent Allende from Taking Office: Track II The Failed Effort to Kidnap Army Chief Rene Schneider 11. On Oct. 22, 1973, a group tried to kidnap Schneider who opposed a coup 12. The CIA had been in contact with this group but had withdrawn its support 13. Schneider resisted and was shot and killed 14. The coup attempt backfired--it horrified Chileans 15. Alessandri urged his supporters to vote for Allende--so Allende was confirmed Allende carried out radical changes: 25. Froze prices and raised wages 26. Nationalized copper companies without compensation 27. Nationalized other domestic and foreign firms 28. Rapid land expropriations The Allende Government 16. That Chile would become a model for other countries 17. That it would foment insurgencies in other Latin American countries 18. That it would encourage nationalization without compensation 19. That it would become a close ally of the Soviet Union 20. That Allende would turn Chile into a Communist/Socialist state U.S. Fears About Allende's Chile U.S. Efforts to Undermine the Allende Regime 21. Officially, U.S. policy toward Chile was "cool but correct." 22. But, the U.S. spent $7 million on covert aid to undermine Allende 23. Funds went to opposition political parties 24. Funds went to propaganda 25. The U.S. also cut aid and credits to Chile 26. The U.S. sought to block multilateral assistance to Chile as well By 1972, there were: 29. Growing black markets and shortages 30. Extensive sabotage and diversion of products 31. Rising inflation 32. Major trade deficits 33. Growing concern about property rights Worsening Economic Problems 27. Many people oppose Allende, but a significant number still support him 28. But the left is dividedradicals such as the MIR want faster change 29. A failed effort to form a coalition with the Christian Democrats 30. Opposition lacks 2/3 vote necessary to impeach Allende 31. There is rising instability: terrorist attacks and street mobilizations Growing Divisions and Polarization 6. Many centrists as well as rightists begin to call for a coup The Military Coup 7. In early Sept. 1973, Army Chief Carlos Prats resigns 8. He is replaced by Augusto Pinochet, believed to be a constitutionalist 9. On Sept. 11, 1973 a coup begins with junior officers--Pinochet joins in 10. The Air Force bombs the presidential palaceAllende commits suicide 11. Most violent coup in South American history--the aftermath is worse 34.There is no evidence of direct U.S. involvement 35.But the CIA was aware of coup plotting 36.The CIA provided funds to some violent groups 37.CIA passed some data to the military 38.CIA helped military polish its image after the coup The Nature of U.S. Involvement ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2008 for the course GOV 312L taught by Professor Madrid during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '07