Entire APUSH course review - Hannah Kim Mr Wilder Period 2...

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Hannah Kim Mr. Wilder Period 2 28 March 2016 Spring Break Assignment Period 1 (1491-1607) 1. The cultivation of maize affected the Native Americans in which it was a staple crop for their civilization. It became their foundation of the complex, large-scale, centralized Aztec and Incan civilization that eventually emerged. Cultivation of corn spread across the nation and thus transformed nomadic hunters into agricultural villagers. 2. Spain: Colonized in the New World in hopes to find large amounts of gold and silver. They stumbled on American when on a route to the Far East in search of the “fable wealth of the West Indies”. The pursuit of riches was not the only motivation for the Spaniards to come to America, though. Some men wanted to create a "profitable agricultural economy" as well as spread the Christian religion. England: Sought out religious freedom when colonizing. Many people were persecuted because of their beliefs, and this generated much interest in finding a place where they could practice freedom of religion instead of always having to answer to the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. In addition, during this time England gained a huge population surplus leading them to search for new land to colonize. Employment as well as supplies became difficult to find thus expanding their land. 3. The Columbian Exchange was the trade system between the New and Old Worlds. The New World offered new raw materials including medals and soil for the cultivation of sugar. New World plans such as tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and especially potatoes eventually revolutionized the international economy as well as the European diet. In exchange, Europeans introduced Old World crops and animas to the Americas. As a result many Native Americans adopted the horse, transforming their cultures into highly mobile and wide- ranging hunting societies. Columbus’s discovery initiated the kind of explosion in international commerce that a later age would call “globalization”. However, Old World diseases quickly devastated and affected the lives of Natives. In the centuries after
Columbus’s landfall, as many as 90% of Native Americans perished and was so severe that entire cultures and ancient ways of life were extinguished forever. 4. The encomienda system established by the Spanish government was a policy to “commend” or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland. In reality it affected the lives of Native Americans because it was practically slavery. 5. The development of slavery began with Portuguese exploration of West Africa in hopes to find gold, and later, an eastern water passage for trade with Asia. In 1441, slaves began a four-century traffic in Africans across the Atlantic world. Although slavery had existed in Africa prior to the arrival of Europeans, it did not take the form it would in the Western Hemisphere. In the African system, slavery was not generational; a child did not become a

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