GOV 312L Spring 2007 Week 15 outline

GOV 312L Spring 2007 Week 15 outline - GOV 312L Spring 2007...

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Unformatted text preview: GOV 312L Spring 2007 Week 15 U.S. Immigration Policy The Determinants of Immigration: Push Factors Push factors that lead people to emigrate include: Unemployment Low wages Political strife Oppression Starvation The Determinants of Immigration: Pull Factors Factors that draw people to certain countries include: Available jobs/labor shortages High(er) wages Political stability Civil/political liberties Willingness to admit immigrants Family members/friends/co-nationals Some Restrictions on Emigration countries restrict emigration: To retain skilled workers To retain assets For symbolic reasons—Cuba & the Soviet Union Restrictions on Immigration Immigration tends to be much more restricted than emigration Immigration is often restricted by: Familial ties Race, religion, or ethnicity Skills Wealth Ideology Legal Different Types of Immigrants immigrants—permanent residents Legal immigrants—temporary work programs Refugees and asylees Involuntary immigrants Undocumented/illegal immigrants Short-term visitors: tourists/business visitors Illegal Illegal/Undocumented Immigrants immigrants come for the same reasons as legal immigrants Economic reasons Political reasons Familial reasons Some enter legally, but remain when their visa expires Spanish The History of U.S. Immigration Pre-1840 immigration to Florida and New Mexico in late 16th century English immigration to Jamestown and Plymouth Rock in early 17th century Predominantly English immigration thereafter (until 1840) African slaves were the second largest immigrant population in this period Few Spanish and French immigrants—they had sparsely populated colonies 4.3 The 1st Great Wave of Immigration 1841-1860 million immigrants came during two decades before the civil war This wave brought national and religious diversity: 40 percent were Irish 35 percent were German Most of the Irish were Catholic Many of the Germans were Jews The Second Great Wave of Immigration, 18651920 After the Civil War, came a new wave of immigration This wave peaked in the in the first decade of 1900s when 8.8 million came Immigrants began to come from Asia and the Americas (China and Mexico) But the vast majority continued to come from Europe Many of these came from Southern and Eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland) Each Reactions against Immigration of these periods ended with immigration restrictions Emergence of anti-immigrant Know Nothing Party in 1850s Red Scares at the end of WWI 1917 Law and earlier measures banned immigration from Asia Quota acts of 1920s excluded Southern and Eastern Europeans Immigration Immigration post 1930 dropped off in 1930s and remained low until 1965 From 1930-1965, most immigrants came from Europe But Mexican immigration increased during this period Since 1965, immigration has increased to record levels again Most immigrants now come from Latin America and Asia The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 The 1965 Act eliminated the national origin quotas of the 1920s Act established two categories of welcome immigrants: Family members of U.S. citizens or residents—80% of total Skilled workers—20% of total It set a permeable cap of 290,000 annual immigrants With a limit of 20,000 per country But Congress could exempt immediate relatives The Consequences of the 1965 Act The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act: Encouraged increasing immigration Concentrated immigration in countries that had recently sent immigrants to the U.S. Created obstacles to immigration for other people There Recent Refugee/Asylee Legislation have been efforts to include refugees in the annual caps But the president retains most authority over refugees and asylees Presidents have often admitted large number of refugees from enemy countries Efforts to Control Illegal Immigration The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: employers for hiring illegal immigrants Required people to demonstrate work eligibility Gave permanent resident status to illegal immigrants who had been here for five years Allowed agricultural enterprises to hire some foreign workers The Act did not stop illegal immigration The U.S. did not rigorously enforce employer sanctions Penalized Other Immigration Measures In the 1990s, Congress also: Increased funding for the INS Increased the permeable cap on immigrants to 675,000 Reduced the share of visas to family members to 70% of total Allocated 10% of the visas to low-immigrant countries The 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act This 1996 Act: Sought to speed up deportations Prohibited illegal immigrants from receiving permanent residency Tightened requirements for sponsoring immigrants At the same time, Congress limited immigrant access to welfare programs The Current Immigration Reform Debate Congress is currently debating immigration reform, including proposals to: Tighten border enforcement, including building walls at border Enable companies to hire foreign workers Provide path to citizenship for some illegal aliens Legal A Profile of Legal Immigrants immigration has fluctuated around 800,000 per year in recent years Most come from Latin America: Mexico, the DR, El Salvador, Cuba and Colombia Many come from Asia: China, the Philippines, India and South Korea ¾ of immigrants have relatives in the U.S. 1/3 of immigrants have already lived here ¼ The Demographics of Legal Immigrants of immigrants are under 20 and 5% are over 65. More men than women Most settle in cities 2/3 settle in 5 states: California, New York, Texas, Florida, and New Jersey They save more than U.S. citizens They often work in service sector, frequently holding multiple jobs An A Profile of Illegal Immigrants estimated 8 million illegal immigrants currently live here The number increases by 500,000 annually Most are from Mexico They work in agriculture, construction, textiles, services etc. They typically earn low wages and have poor working conditions Many households include both legal and illegal immigrants Most Attitudes about Immigration people believe that most immigrants are illegal, but this is false Many people favor immigration from Europe or Asia but not Latin America Many people oppose immigration but like immigrants Many people fear immigrants are not assimilating Some people suggest that Latin American immigrants are not like other immigrants The Citizenship in the United States U.S. has traditionally been flexible about granting citizenship th The 14 amendment (1868) gave citizenship to anyone born here Some other countries do not grant citizenship based on place of birth Some have sought to change this in the U.S. as well The History of the Naturalization Process The U.S. has at times restricted naturalization In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which barred Chinese immigrants from naturalizing It was subsequently extended to other Asian nationalities In 1943, the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed and naturalization rights were later expanded No group is currently excluded from citizenship on ethnic or religious grounds Becoming a Citizen The U.S. will grant citizenship to anyone who: Has resided legally in the U.S. for 5 years Is of good moral standing Will swear loyalty to the U.S. constitution Can pass an English and U.S. government exam However, polygamists, anarchists, Communists, Nazis and felons are not eligible A Profile of Naturalized Citizens Approximately 500,000 people are naturalized annually Naturalization is correlated with: Time in the U.S. Income/education/home ownership Gender (being female) Being married Emigrating for political reasons Being from Asia, Africa, or an English-speaking country There Battles over Naturalization have been frequent battles over control of naturalization process At times local authorities controlled naturalization Subsequently Congress took the power away from local authorities Officially the courts decide, but the courts defer to the INS INS is often very slow and bureaucratic The Rights of Non-Citizens Non-citizens have the same responsibilities as citizens They must obey laws, pay taxes and register for the draft However, they cannot: Serve on juries Leave the country for a long time Vote Work in some government jobs Private companies may also discriminate against noncitizens Non-Citizens and Public Social Services Non-citizens have traditionally been eligible for contributory programs But not always for needs-tested programs Some have sought to deny access to non-citizens for various reasons In 1996, Congress eliminated immigrant eligibility for food stamps and supplemental social security (SSI) But in 1997, Congress restored (SSI) for elderly immigrants Some States’ Efforts to Recoup Costs border states sued to recoup costs of providing services to illegal immigrants They argue that it is the Federal Government’s duty to control borders These efforts have been rebuffed by the courts In Proposition 187 1994, California voted on proposition 187 which sought to: Exclude illegal immigrants from public social services and schools Criminalize the production of false citizenship or residency documents Require INS Voters states to turn over illegal immigrants to the The Battle against 187 approved 187 by a 2 to 1 margin But the courts ruled most of it unconstitutional The Republican Party subsequently distanced itself from the measure Citizen’s groups in other states have failed to enact similar measures ...
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