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Unformatted text preview: Gov 312L Spring 2006 Week 14
U.S. Policy on Narcotics
0. Which drugs are illegal is based on social conventions not science 1. Some harmful drugs, like alcohol and tobacco, are legal 2. Addictiveness and health consequences of drugs vary widely 3. Nicotine is one of the most addictive, followed by heroin, cocaine, then alcohol 4. All four drugs may have debilitating health consequences The Status of Drugs 0. Legal status and public tolerance of certain drugs has changed over time 1. Tolerance has fallen in recent years 2. Reagan administration declared a "war on drugs" 3. These policies have been continued in recent administrations 4. Latin America has been on the front lines in the war on drugs The War on Drugs U.S. Methods of Combating the Drug Trade 5. Elimination of crops and laboratories, particularly in the Andes 6. Interdiction of shipments both at the border and in transit countries 7. Preventing money laundering in U.S. and offshore financial centers 8. Combating drug trafficking in the U.S. 9. Reducing domestic demand: imprisoning or treating drug users 10. Successful eradication campaigns lead to shifting sources 11. Only a small percentage of drug shipments are apprehended 12. Efforts to prevent money laundering yield only a few high profile arrests 13. Large expenditures to combat drug trafficking overcrowds the jails 14. Meanwhile, the price of some drugs, like cocaine, has declined Results in the War on Drugs 5. The number of casual drug users has declined 6. The number of hardcore drug users has held steady 7. Drugs of choice has shifted 8. Economic toll of drug abuse is very high 9. Health impact is very negative Drug use in the United States Tensions with Latin American governments 10. The War on Drugs has frequently caused tensions with Latin American governments 11. Colombia under Samper 12. Bolivia under Morales 13. Mexico 14. Peru 15. The certification process has caused much tension with Latin America 16. U.S. had to certify that countries were cooperating in war on drugs 17. Countries without certification would lose U.S. aid 18. Struggles over certification in Colombia and Mexico 19. Latin American countries criticized the certification process The Certification Process 15.The Act was amended in 2001 and 2002. 16.The president now must name major drug transit or production countries 17.If a country has not made progress in the previous year, aid may be cut 18.However, the president can override this if the country is trying to comply Changes to the Certification Process Violence and Corruption 19.Drugrelated violence has been widespread in Colombia and Mexico 20.Violence has involved military, paramilitary forces, narcotraffickers and guerrillas 21.Drug trafficking has also led to widespread corruption
20. Panamanian strongman, Manuel Noriega, traditionally had cooperated with the U.S. 21. Noriega, however, also cooperated with drug traffickers 22. In 1988, federal prosecutors made drug charges against Noriega 23. This caused shock in Miami and Panama 24. The president of Panama, Eric Delvalle, tried to dismiss Noriega 25. The legislature dismissed Delvalle instead Conflict in Panama over Drugs 22.The U.S. then became involved in efforts to oust Noriega 23.It directed all U.S. payments to Panama go to Delvalle 24.It imposed economic sanctions on Panama 25.The CIA participated in efforts to overthrow Noriega U.S. efforts to oust Noriega The 1989 Panamanian Elections 26. Early electoral results showed Noriega's frontman candidate was losing 27. Noriega then engages in massive fraud to deny the opposition's victory 28. Electoral observers denounce the fraud 29. The OAS then sends a mission to Panama, but Noriega refuses to cooperate 30. On Dec. 15, the legislature names Noriega as president for the first time 31. That same day, the legislature proclaims that "a state of war" exists with the U.S. 32. On Dec. 16, 1989, Panama's military fires on U.S. soldiers 33. One officer is killed; others are injured 34. President Bush expresses outrage and gives approval for invasion The Catalyst for the Invasion 35. On Dec. 20, 1989, the U.S. launches the invasion 36. 13,000 troops are airlifted into Panama, joining the 13,000 troops already there 37. The Panamanian Defense Forces put up little resistance 38. Within five days, the U.S. controls the country 39. It takes 5,000 prisoners The Invasion of Panama 26.Noriega initially eludes capture 27.On Xmas Day, he seeks asylum in the Vatican's embassy The Capture and Trial of Noriega 28.U.S. troops then begin to bombard the embassy with rock music 29.On Jan. 4, he surrenders and is flown to Miami 30.He is convicted of drug trafficking and receives a 40 year sentence 31.Latin American leaders widely condemned the invasion 32.The OAS and the UN pass resolutions condemning it 33.Critics argue that the death toll was too high to capture one man 34.The U.S. public and congress largely supported the invasion 35.The removal of Noriega had no real impact on drug trafficking 36.It did lead to the establishment of democracy in Panama 37.Opposition presidential candidate, Guillermo Endara, took over in 1990 38.Since then, Panama has had regular, free and fair elections 39.Many social problems remain Reactions to the Invasion of Panama The Impact of the Invasion The History of the Drug Trade in Colombia 40. Colombia is the largest exporter of drugs to the U.S. 41. Large cocaine exports began in 1970s 42. Major drug cartels developed in Cali and Medellin 43. Initially, coca leaf was grown in Bolivia and Peru not Colombia 44. In 1990s, Colombia became a major grower as well as processor and trafficker 40.Colombian drug cartels originally dominated the business 41.But they now have major rivals in Mexico 42.Colombia's income from drugs has declined to less than 5% of GDP 43.It still may represent more than a quarter of the country's exports The Drug Industry in Colombia 45. During the Cold War, U.S. relations with Colombia were excellent 46. Drugs first became an issue in the 1970s under President Turbay 47. Turbay agreed to extradite drug lords 48. President Betancur opposed extradition 49. But he reversed his position when drug lords assassinated his minister of justice 50. This led to a campaign of terror 51. President Barco also sought to extradite drug lords Battles over Extradition Controversies over surrender agreements 52. Under President Gaviria, extradition was banned 53. Gaviria also negotiated cushy surrender agreements with drug lords 54. This angered the United States 55. The drug lord Pablo Escobar surrendered but lived well in prison 56. When word got out, he fled, but was eventually tracked down and killed U.S.-Colombia Relations under President Samper 44.Under President Samper, relations with the U.S. deteriorated 45.Samper was accused of taking funds from the drug lords 46.He tried to improve relations by clamping down on the drug lords 47.But the U.S. withdrew Samper's visa, decertified Colombia and cut aid 48.Efforts to impeach Samper failed 49.Relations improved under Presidents Pastrana and Uribe 50.Extraditions of drug lords have resumed 51.The U.S. and Colombia developed Plan Colombia Improving Relations 52.It seeks to improve economic development and security 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. Under Plan Colombia, the U.S. provides funds for: Human rights and judicial reform Counternarcotics Alternative economic development Increased interdiction Assistance for the Colombian police Plan Colombia The U.S., the Colombian Military and the War on Drugs 59.The Colombian military has become more involved in the war on drugs 60.The military fights guerrillas which protect drug fields and labs 61.The U.S. provides money to the military to fight the drug war 62.Colombia has become one of the largest recipients of U.S. aid 63. 64. 65. Critics are concerned that: The U.S. could be drawn into the Colombian civil war The military is involved in human rights abuses and paramilitaries Controversies over U.S. involvement in Colombia 66. The Colombian military is being corrupted by drug money 67. The focus on the military undermines democracy 57. Guerrillas have been fighting since the 1960s 58. The biggest guerrilla organization is the FARC--it controls much territory 59. The FARC grows and protects drug crops and laboratories 60. It extorts funds from drug lords 61. The FARC earns $200 to $600 million per year from drugs 62. It also engages in kidnappings Narco-guerrillas in Colombia 68.Drug lords also have close ties to paramilitary forces 69.These forces brutally oppose the guerrillas 70.Both sides engage in widespread killings 71.But paramilitaries have killed the most people Paramilitary forces in Colombia ...
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- Spring '06