Module 8 study questions - Module 8 Ecosystems and...

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Module 8: Ecosystems and Adaptations 1. Heterotrophs Living organisms that obtain their energy and organic materials from other living organism, or other outside sources 2. Autotroph Living organisms that make their own food and organic materials 3. Chemoautotroph Autotrophs that use energy from inorganic chemicals to make their food and organic materials 4. Endosymbiotic theory The theory that the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes living inside the earliest eukaryotic cells 5. Evolution Heritable change living organisms over time 6. Natural selection Organisms with heritable, advantageous traits leave more offspring than organisms with other traits, causing advantageous traits to become more common in populations over time 7. Heritable Traits that are passed from parents to offspring because they are at least partially determined by genes 8. Adaptation Traits that make organisms well suited to living and reproducing in their environments 9. Directional selection Natural selection that favors organisms with a trait that is different from the population average 10. Stabilizing selection Natural selection that favors organisms with the average trait in the population over organisms with traits that differ from it 11. Diversifying selection Natural selection that favors traits at two extremes on either side of the population average 12. Modern Synthesis The focus on evolution as changes in the allele frequencies of genes over time 13. Mutation pressure Exists if the alleles responsible for the desired trait are more likely to mutate in one direction than another 14. Genetic drif Occurs when, by chance rather than because it confers greater fitness, more alleles of desired trait are transmitted to the next generation that alleles of another trait 15. Migration Occurs if there is a net movement of a desired trait either into or out of the population 16. Species
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