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Unformatted text preview: Week 6: U.S.Latin American Relations during the Cold War Gov 312L U.S.-Latin American Relations Spring 2007 The Transformation of the U.S. Military from the 1930s - 1960s
0. From 185,000 to 2 million troops 1. From 0 to 48 military alliances 2. From no troops stationed abroad to 1.5 million in 119 countries The Key Characteristics of the Cold War Era, according to Smith 3. Bipolar structure of world power. Previously, it had been multipolar. 4. Emphasis on ideological struggle--Capitalism and Democracy vs. Communism or Liberty vs. Equality. 5. Constant worldwide conflict, but between proxies on the periphery. 6. Neither side could risk a direct attack on the other MAD 7. The pattern of alliances had changed--Europe was divided. WWII Shifted the Balance of Power 8. The traditional European powers were weaker. Devastated economies 9. The U.S. economy had grown dramatically--it represented 1/2 of world industrial output. 10.The U.S. had atomic weapons. 11.Thus U.S. was the dominant power. 0. The U.S.S.R. quickly began to be seen as a threat to the U.S. in the wake of WWII. 1. The Soviet Bloc suppressed civil and political liberties. Iron Curtain. 2. In 1947, the Truman Doctrine pledged to support "free peoples"--applied in Greece and Turkey. 3. In 1948, Berlin was blockaded. 4. In 1949, the Soviet Union detonated an atomic bomb. The Emergence of the Soviet Threat 12. The policy of containment was based on the idea that: 13. The Soviet Union was seeking to spread Communism worldwide. 14. It needed to be contained even if it could not be rolled back. 15. A continuous, worldwide struggle was necessary to stop it and its allies. The New Policy of Containment The Cold War Struggle from Europe to Asia Cornerstones of U.S. Foreign Policy during the Cold War Era
10. The domino theory 11. The notion of a single, unified Communist movement 12. Only the U.S. could block the Communist threat. 13. Massive rearmament was necessary 14. A bipartisan consensus on foreign policy. 15. Policy was made within the executive branch 5. Initial Cold War struggle focused on Europe 6. Attention switched subsequently to Asia because of Chinese and Korean conflicts 7. Chinese communist victory convinced U.S. of the danger of the threat 8. Korean stalemate led U.S. to accept a Soviet sphere of influence 9. U.S. worried about external invasions as well as internal subversion 16. 17. Latin America was seen as a key U.S. ally and partner Much of U.S. foreign trade and investment went to the region. 18. Latin America initially controlled 2/5 of the votes in the UN. 19. Latin America/U.S. signed a mutual defense treaty--the Rio Pact. 20. U.S. and Latin America founded the Organization of American States in 1948 The U.S. and Latin America in the late 1940s Shifting U.S. Involvement in the Region 16.In the wake of WWII, U.S. shifted its attention toward Europe and Asia 17.The U.S. was initially skeptical about Communist threat in the region 18.In the 1950s, however, the U.S. became more concerned about Communist threats in the region. Strategies to Combat Communism in the Region 21. Support antiCommunist regimes, even dictatorships 22. Strengthen ties to Latin American militaries 23. Convince countries to ban Communist parties 24. Help governments root out leftist labor leaders and control unions 25. Persuade countries to break diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union 26. The Eisenhower administration supported dictators but asked them to: 27. Ban the Communist party and cut ties to the U.S.S.R. 28. Support the U.S. at international forums 29. Support U.S. intervention 30. Open the economy to U.S. trade and investment. The Eisenhower administration's policy toward Latin America 31. The only case of military intervention in the region under Eisenhower Intervention in Guatemala 32. The U.S. did not send its own troops, but worked through proxies 33. The U.S. intervened in part to support economic interests 34. More important, however, was the fear of Communism 35. Guatemala set the pattern for future U.S. interventions in the region The Roots of U.S. Intervention in Guatemala 19.Jacobo Arbenz, a centerleft reformist, is elected in 1950 20.He initiates reforms, expropriates land from the United Fruit Company 21.The company demands greater compensation and enlists the support of the U.S. government 22.The U.S. is also worried about his Communist supporters and advisers The Process of Intervention in Guatemala
36. The U.S. unsuccessfully seeks an OAS resolution justifying intervention 37. The CIA organizes an exile force in Honduras under Castillo Armas 38. The CIA also provides some planes that attack Guatemala City 39. Arbenz resigns and flees 40. The coup gives birth to prolonged conflict 41. The coup worsens antiAmericanism The Emergence of Revolutionary Movements in Latin America
42. From late 1950s to 1980s, more than 30 guerrilla movements emerge 43. The movements were all leftist, but typically were not supported by Communist Party 44. The guerrilla movements were typically nationalistic and hostile to the U.S. 45. They caused growing concern in the U.S. and Latin America--fear of revolution The First Wave of Guerrilla Movements, 1950s1960s
23.Cuba 24.Guatemala 25.Venezuela 26.Colombia 27.Bolivia The 2nd Wave of Guerrilla Movements, 19701980s
28.Guatemala 29.Colombia 30.Peru 31.El Salvador 32.Nicaragua The Origins of Guerrilla Movements 33.Poverty and inequality 34.Authoritarianism and repression 35.Nationalism and U.S. intervention 36.Cuban revolution inspired many 37.Often student led 38.Depended on peasant support--land tenure mattered 46. Guerrilla movements only succeeded in taking power in Cuba and Nicaragua because: 47. They usually had a narrow support base 48. They were often too radical and divided 49. Some governments carried out reforms to forestall revolutions 50. U.S. helped shore up governments Why the revolutionary movements failed? 39. Kennedy took over at a time of great concern about revolution. 40. Kennedy's main strategies were: 41. Counterinsurgency assistance 42. Opposition to the left 43. Promotion of reform and development The Kennedy Administration and Latin America Kennedy, Modernization Theory and the Alliance for Progress 44.Modernization theory suggested that development led to democracy 45.Modernization theorists believed that foreign aid could accelerate development 46.Kennedy therefore formulated a Marshall Plan for Latin America: The Alliance for Progress The Goals of the Alliance for Progress 51. To raise per capita income by 2.5% 52. To halt inflation 53. To boost industrialization and employment 54. To increase and diversify trade and encourage economic integration 55. To carry out land reform and redistribution 56. To improve health--cut infant mortality 57. To expand education--eliminate illiteracy 58. To strengthen democratic institutions 59. Countries drew up national development plans that were evaluated by experts 60. Aid increased dramatically in the 1960s$22.3 billion in all. 61. However, much of it was in loans that had to be paid back. 62. Economic growth was high in 1960s, but varied 63. Social reform was slow--some progress in health and education but little land reform The Alliance for Progress in Action Why did the Alliance for Progress not Make More Progress? 47.Aid was insufficient 48.Upper classes defended their privileges and power 49.Middle classes did not provide enough support 50.Social change sometimes caused polarization-- increased expectations ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2008 for the course GOV 312L taught by Professor Madrid during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '07