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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Concept 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food The first cells could only perform glycolysis but then cyanobacteria ( photoautotrophs ) came along and started doing a little photosynthesis: used CO 2 and released oxygenthis paved the way for creatures to live on land and opened the door for heterotrophs to exist. (Before this, cells on land were zapped because of ozone layer) Autotrophs synthesize organic molecules from inorganic raw materials---plants, bacteria, algae. Energy from the sun chemical energy (ATP); NADP+ is the electron acceptor that accepts hydrogens and electrons in photosynthesis (NAD+s cousin) Light energy drives electron flow during chemiosmosis. Plants provide us with fibers and fossil fuels. Priestly took a mouse and put it in a bell jar. He put a candle in there and the mouse died. But when he put a green plant in there, the mouse did not die (because of oxygen)showed the green plants have the ability to restore air. Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants o Mesophyll cells are where the chloroplasts are found. Veins on the leaf signify a vascular system=water travels through this and enables photosynthesis. Leaves are not green all the way thruonly where there are dots of chloroplasts. A waxy cuticle layer helps prevent the plant from losing water. Pigment is embedded in the plasma membrane. Photosynthesis occurs in the mesosome. Epidermis outer part of leave Stomata microscopic pores on the underside of leaves that serve as guard cells through which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits o Chloroplasts are double-membrane organelles with an outer membrane and an inner membrane. o Chloroplastic envelope : space between inner and outer membrane o Grana : stacks of thylakoid membranes o Stromal thylakoids : connect the grana o Stroma : space between the grana o Thylakoid space : space inside the thylakoid membrane Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry o 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6CO 2 G = 686 kcal/mol----positive because we use energy o The Splitting of Water and Photosynthesis as a Redox Process Oxygen comes from water which is split during photosynthesis (oxidation reduction) Water is split, and electrons are transferred along with hydrogen ions from the water to carbon dioxide, reducing it to sugar. The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview o Light reaction : (photo part)traps radiant energy and converts it to ATP and NADPH which are then transferred to the Calvin Cycle o Calvin cycle : (synthesis part)takes ATP and uses CO 2 ; uses energy from ATP and puts it into the bonds of glucose....
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