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unit 5 exam review 1305

unit 5 exam review 1305 - Exam Review Chapters 48-50 Bio...

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Exam Review Chapters 48-50 Bio 1305 Fall 2007 Adair THINK ‘STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION’ KEY CONCEPTS Chapter 48 1. Most cells require a constant supply of oxygen and continuous removal of carbon dioxide . These respiratory gases are exchanged between the body fluids of an animal and its environment by diffusion 2. What are some factors that limit gas exchange in aquatic animals? Gas exchange is limited by the low diffusion rate and low amount of oxygen in water 3. For aquatic animals, what happens to the availability of oxygen when the water temperature doubles? The amount of oxygen in water decreases, but their metabolism and the amount of work required to move water over their gas exchange surfaces increases 4. What are some adaptations that are required for multicellular animals with high metabolic rates to live on land and acquire their oxygen from air? Adaptations to mazimize gas exchange include increasing the surface area for gas exchange, maximizing partial pressure gradients across those exchange surfaces, ventilating the outer surface with the respiratory medium, and perfusing the inner surface with blood . 5. What do all respiratory surfaces have in common? Large surface areas 6. How do insects distribute air throughout their bodies? Through a tracheal system of tracheae, tracheoles, and air capillaries 7. What are some ways that internal gills maximize the efficiency of gas exchange? Protective body cavities for gills Maximizing the surfface area for diffusion, minimizing the path length for diffusion, and maximizing the partial pressure of oxygen gradient by means of constant, unidirectional, countercurrent flow of blood and water over the opposide sides of their fas exchange surfaces. 8. Describe the structure and function of the lungs of birds. The lungs of a bird are smaller than the lungs of a similar-sized mammal, and bird lungs expand and contract less during a breathing cycle than do mammalian lungs, Bird lungs contract during inhalation and expand during exhalation. The fas exchange sustem of birds includes air sacs that communicate with the lngs, but are not used for fas exchange. Air flows unidirectionally through the bird lungs; gases are exchanged in air capillaries that run between parabronchi. 9. What is meant by “tidal” breathing. Is it more or less efficient than gas exchange in fishes or birds? Breathing in vertebrates other than birds is tidal (air flows in and exhaled gases flow out by the same route) and is therefore less efficient than gas exchange in fish or birds. Although the volume of air exchanged with each breath can vary considerably, the inhaled air is always mixed with stale air. 10. Use Fick’s Law to explain how in mammalian lungs, the respiratory surface is adapted for efficient gas exchange.
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