Physiology Exam 3 Notes

Physiology Exam 3 Notes - Physiology Exam 3 Notes: Blood:...

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Physiology Exam 3 Notes: Blood: ● Plasma: Liquid portion of blood -Contains Suspended Elements -Plasma Proteins -Inorganic elements -Nutrients & Wastes -Hormones ● Suspended Elements: ● Buffy Coat: Red Blood Cells: - No Nucleus or organelles -Thin, Bi-concaved discs, flat -Flexible membrane -200 million hemoglobin molecules -Hemoglobin- Contains O2 -Binds CO2 + Hydrogen & takes out of solution- Acts as buffer -No mitochondria- Have Glycolytic enzymes *No DNA in RBC* -Can’t reproduce/repair- Don’t last long -Avg = 120 days CO2+H20 Carbonic→ H2CO3 Anyhydrase ●Erythropoesis: Production of RBC- in bone marrow -Requires Amino Acids, Carbs, Iron, Folic Acid, Vit B12 Kidneys → Erythropoesis → Bone Marrow ●Anemia: A decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood 1) Nutritional Anemia: Individual isn’t eating enough folic acid or B12 2) Pernicious Anemia: Lack of Intrinsic Factor- Necessary to absorb B12. -Stomach secretes Intrinsic Factor- Leads to no B12 Absorption 3) Aplastic Anemia: Bone marrow is being destroyed. Caused by chemicals or radiation 4) Renal Anemia: Kidney Diseases- Can’t make RBC (Erythropoesis) 5) Hemorrhagic Anemia: Blood loss- Acute or chronic 6) Hemolytic Anemia: Blood Cells fragile and rupture easily 7) Polycythemia: Too many RBC- Hematocrit too high and blood flow is sluggish A) Primary: Tumor-Like condition of bone marrow- Produces too many RBC and Slows Flow B) Secondary: Gets in response to chronic low oxygen delivery. Happens when someone moves to high altitudes
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White Blood Cells: Immune System- Ability to resist/eliminate potential foreign materials and abnormal cells. (Leukocytes) 2 groups: 1) Granulocytes: Have granules 2) Agranulocytes: Don’t have granules Granulocytes: A) Neutrophil: Most abundant = Phagocytes (eat debris) -Inflammatory responses and defense against bacteria -3-7 Lobes -Cytoplasm stays neutral color B) Eosinophil: Involved in Allergic rxn and parasitic worm infections C) Basophil: “U” shaped nucleus, secrete histamine- Released during Allergic Rxn (Blood vessels dilate) - Secrete Heparin (Anti-Coagulate) Removes fat from blood Agranulocytes: A) Monocytes: Nucleus is kidney shaped -Made in bone marrow -Don’t circulate in blood long- Turn into macrophages (Big eater) B) Lymphocytes: 1) B- Lymphocytes: Secrete antibodies- what attack antigens (something that causes an immune rxn against itself) 2) T-Lymphocytes: Blood Types: ABO system: Classified as to what antigen is on the RBC TYPE ANTIGEN ON RBC ANTIBODY IN BLOOD A A b B B a AB None O None If a person gets the wrong blood transfused, the antibody in the recipient attacks the donor’s blood Agglutination: Blood Clumps RH System: RH: RH+ & RH- (If mom is RH- & baby is RH+, mother makes antibodies against babies blood- next kid) Platelets: -Small cell fragments -Shed from cells -Don’t have nuclei, have Organelles
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Physiology Exam 3 Notes - Physiology Exam 3 Notes: Blood:...

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