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Unformatted text preview: Physiology Exam 1 Notes Chapter One: Intro to Physiology and Homeostasis: Causal Chain: Cause & Effect sequence Teleological Approach: Why something happens Levels of Organization: Atoms Molecules Cell Tissue Organs (more than 1 tissue) Organ Systems Organism 1) Cell: ICF = Intra-Cellular Fluid ECF = Extra-Cellular Fluid Cell Membrane = selectively permeable, lets some things in and out Cytoplasm = Organelles Nucleus = DNA/Genetic Material Cell Requirements:-Nutrients (Energy)-Oxygen-Elimination of CO 2 and wastes-Internal transport system-Synthesize proteins fro growth and structure/function.-Regular exchanges w/ environment-Sense/respond to changes in environment-Many cells reproduce, but not all Differentiation: Process of the cells taking on specializations 3 Types of Muscle Tissue: A) Cardiac: Striated, Short branched, Containing one nucleus, involuntary. Connected by Intercalated Discs and gap Junctions Gap Junctions: Allow spread of electricity to move rapidly from one cardiac cell to another B) Smooth: Spindle type cells, 1 nucleus, encloses hollow tubes and organs of body (Digestive Tract, Uterus, Blood vessels, Involuntary) C) Skeletal: Long, Cylindrical cells, multi- nucleus, striated, attached to bones via tendons Nervous Tissue:-Glial Cells: Supportive, cells of the Nervous System-Neurons: Conduction of electrical signals (terminate on muscle) * Some neurons terminate on muscle or other neurons* * Some neurons terminate on glands*-High req of O 2-Glucose is used for fuel-Cant reproduce-Not good at repair Epithelial Tissue: Cells that form membranes and line the body (skin, glands) highly regulated A) Simple Epithelium- One layer B) Stratified Epithelium- More than one layer C) Squamous- Thin, flat D Cuboidal- Cubed E) Columnar- Columns Glands: Endocrine: Secrete hormones into blood, no ducts Exocrine: Secrete through ducts Connective Tissue: Blood, bone, cartilage, tendons, adipose -Large amounts if Extra-Cellular Matrix (Protein fibers in carbs) - Connects different tissues, supports/ anchors and underlies epithelial tissue Homeostasis: Maintenance of a relatively steady state of the internal environment ( cell needs a certain PH, temp, o2 level) ECF: Plasma (liquid in blood) and Interstitial Fluid (bathes cells) Maintaining Homeostasis: 1.) Negative Feedback: response to a controlled variable in opposition to the change Ex: thermostat Temp Decrease Response = Inc. Temp Temp Increase Response = Decrease Temp 2) Positive Feedback: Response is in same direction as change. (Uterine contractions oxytocin) increase in contractions 3) Feed Forward: Response to anticipation of a change Chem Review:- Solution: Dissolve solute in solvent (water)- Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space- Mass: Amount of matter an object consists of- Weight Effect of gravity on matter *Atomic Particles :* (mostly empty space)- Protons: Positive-Neutrons: Neutral-Electrons: Negative Periodic Table : Atomic Number = # of protons (distinguishes one atom from another) TOP...
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