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Test #1- Medieval & Renaissance Era

Test #1- Medieval & Renaissance Era - Medieval...

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Medieval & Renaissance Era: Music - Organized Sound *4 Components of Sound* : 1) Pitch 2) Dynamic (Volume) 3) Duration 4) Timbre (Quality) Texture : Monophonic: (unison) sounds the same- one note, choppy Homophonic: (vertical) Hymns, notes around same area Polyphonic: (horizontal) All different notes, interweaving Functions of Music: Absolute : Music for music’s sake alone- Theme Programmatic: Music meant to depict something extra-musical (x-mas music, somewhere over the rainbow, church music) *All songs with a text, words are programmatic* Medieval Period: (500-1400 A.D.) Theocenteric- God-centered, church very strong, people were illiterate Arts: Architecture: cathedrals, high ceilings (good acoustics) Paintings: No eyes, body was considered soul Music: Chanti, Monophonic, oldest piece of western music was from Greece, and went to Rome and used on Palm Sunday Gregory The Great- Said he wanted all the music to be written down on manuscripts- Created School for Singers (orphans) Missarium Antiphonales - His collection of music Types of Chanti: 1) Gregorian- Chants that flourished around Rome 2) Byzantine- Chants that flourished around Istanbul 3) Ambrosian/ Milanese- From Milano- St. Ambrose (most ornate of all chants) 4) Galícan- Switzerland 5) Mozarabic- Spain, a lot of N. African influence Methods of Performance: 1) Direct- Choir sings at the same time 2) Responsorial- One person responds to the choir 3) Antiphonal- One group responds to the other group. Methods of Notation: 1) Sylabic- 1 note per syllable 2) Neumatic- 2-4 notes per syllable 3) Melismatic- Many notes per syllable Monal- Not using sharps and flats (white keys only) Tonal- Using sharps and flats (black and white keys) Mass: A) Ordinary: Words never change 1) Kyrie Eleision- Lord have mercy- Greek 2) Gloria in Excelsis 3) Credo 4) Sanctus et Bendictus 5) Agnus Dei- Petetion Development of Polyphonic: Parallel Organum- 8 notes/ 5 notes/ 4 notes Vox Organalis- Added voice Vox Principalis- Main voice Composite Organum- Manuscripts with 3 parts Gymel- Parallel Organum of the 3 rd Mass:
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B) Propers- Sung items with words that change Overtone Series- Every sound there is, has a fundamental bottom note (pedal) Pedal- Fundamental bottom note/pitch 10 th Century Breakthrough : Before all music was still parallel Limoges, France- Oblique, contrary motion in music- moving in different directions= St. Martial/ Free/ Melismatic
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