MarineBio1stQrt.StudyGuide - Gabriel Borg Period#7 Marine...

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Gabriel Borg October 16, 2015 Period #7 Marine Biology Honors 1st Quarter Exam Study Guide I. Oceanography 1. Oceans a. Label Earth’s 5 oceans from the map. - Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Southern b. Know the name and location of the deepest part of the ocean. - Located in Marianas trench. In the hadopelagic zone, called the challenger deep. c. What percentage of the Earth’s surface is covered by ocean? - 71% d. How was the ocean formed? (Two theories) - Volcanoes erupting vapor and comets of ice landing on earth and melting 2. Geological Features a. Label and describe the features of the ocean floor: continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise, abyssal plain, oceanic trench, volcanic island, and seamounts. Draw a sketch if necessary. - - Continental shelf: underwater extension of a continent - Continental slope: steeply descending bottom - Continental rise: gently sloping area before the abyssal plain - Abyssal plain: extensive sediment covered flat bottom. 30% of ocean is abyssal plain - Oceanic trench: deep narrow depression - Volcanic island: island formed by volcanic actions - Seamounts: submerged mountains b. Describe the formation of the Mariana Trench by using the names of the plates involved. - When the pacific plate moves beneath the philippine plate c. What is the deepest spot on Earth? - Challenger Deep How deep is it?
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Gabriel Borg October 16, 2015 Period #7 - 6.7 miles d. Explain how scientists are able to use sonar to map out the ocean floor. - The two pieces of information that are needed to determine the ocean depth through echo- sounding are the time for signal to return and the total distance traveled. e. What two pieces of information are needed to identify how deep the ocean floor is? The time and distance traveled. f. Describe how seamounts are formed. - When magma breaks through the surface of the two plates that are submerging, it crests the seamounts located near the trench. It is a continuous flow of magma. How can seamounts become islands and island become seamounts? - It can become an island when magma keeps flowing out and hardening until it reaches the surface of top of the water. Islands can become seamounts when water level rise and submerges the island underwater. 3. Zones a. Be able to determine between the photic and aphotic zones. Epipelagic zone gets natural sunlight. Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, Abyssopelagic and Hadalpelagic zone has no sunlight. b. Be able to define and describe the characteristics of the 5 ocean zones: - Epipelagic : Sunlight Zone; 656 ft. 200 meters; - Mesopelagic : 2nd ocean layer; receives some sunlight (200 to 1000m; 660 to 3,300 ft.) - Bathypelagic : 1000 to 4000m; 3281 to 13124 ft; no light at all; very few creatures - Abyssopelagic : lack of nutrients, high oxygen content, complete total darkness-- substantial amount of fish, invertebrates, bacteria, (13124 ft. to 19686 ft.; 4000 to 6000m) - Hadalpelagic : deepest, darkest, and most pressured layer. 19868 ft to the bottom; Marianas Trench c. What are the nicknames of the five ocean zones?
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