Aula TP (08) - Aula TP(08 Aula TP(08 Diagramas de Fases(13...

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Aula TP (08) [email protected] 1 DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA EQ0078 Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais Joaquim L. Faria 1 Aula TP (08) Diagramas de Fases. (13 de outubro, 2016) DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA EQ0078 Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais Joaquim L. Faria 2 Phase Equilibria: Solubility Limit Question: What is the solubility limit for sugar in water at 20 ° C ? Answer: 65 wt% sugar . At 20 ° C, if C < 65 wt% sugar: syrup At 20 ° C, if C > 65 wt% sugar: syrup + sugar 65 Solubility Limit : Maximum concentration for which only a single phase solution exists. Sugar/Water Phase Diagram Sugar Temperature ( ° C) 0 20 40 60 80 100 C = Composition (wt% sugar) L (liquid solution i.e., syrup) Solubility Limit L (liquid) + S (solid sugar) 20 40 60 80 100 Water Adapted from Fig. 11.1, Callister & Rethwisch 9e. Solution – solid, liquid, or gas solutions, single phase Mixture – more than one phase
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Aula TP (08) [email protected] 2 DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA EQ0078 Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais Joaquim L. Faria 3 Components : The elements or compounds which are present in the alloy (e.g., Al and Cu) Phases : The physically and chemically distinct material regions that form (e.g., α and β). Aluminum- Copper Alloy Components and Phases α (darker phase) β (lighter phase) Adapted from chapter- opening photograph, Chapter 9, Callister, Materials Science & Engineering: An Introduction, 3e. DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA EQ0078 Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais Joaquim L. Faria 4 70 80 100 60 40 20 0 Temperature ( ° C) C = Composition (wt% sugar) L ( liquid solution i.e., syrup) 20 100 40 60 80 0 L (liquid) + S (solid sugar) Effect of Temperature & Composition Altering T can change # of phases: path A to B . Altering C can change # of phases: path B to D . water- sugar system Fig. 11.1, Callister & Rethwisch 9e. D (100 ° C,C = 90) 2 phases B (100 ° C,C = 70) 1 phase A (20 ° C,C = 70) 2 phases
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Aula TP (08) [email protected] 3 DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA EQ0078 Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais Joaquim L. Faria 5 Criteria for Solid Solubility Crystal Structure electroneg. r (nm) Ni FCC 1.9 0.1246 Cu FCC 1.8 0.1278 Both have the same crystal structure (FCC) and have similar electronegativities and atomic radii ( W. Hume – Rothery rules ) suggesting high mutual solubility. Simple system (e.g., Ni-Cu solution) Ni and Cu are totally soluble in one another for all proportions. DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA QUÍMICA EQ0078 Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais Joaquim L. Faria 6 Phase Diagrams Indicate phases as a function of T, C, and P. For this course: - binary systems: just 2 components. - independent variables: T and C ( P = 1 atm is almost always used ). Phase Diagram for Cu-Ni system • 2 phases: L (liquid) α (FCC solid solution) • 3 different phase fields: L L + α α wt% Ni 20 40 60 80 100 0 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 T( ° C) L (liquid) α (FCC solid solution) Fig. 11.3(a), Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
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