THE ORIGINS OF UTILITARIAN CONSEREVATION o Enlightenment o Isaac Newton o Benjamin Franklin o George Perkins Marsh o Man and Nature o Earth as Modified by Human Action o The New Glaciers o Gifford Pinchot o National Forestry School o Biltmore Estate o Forest Reserve Act (1891) Utilitarian conservation is about using science to solve problems o Late 1800s--> industrialization boomed. West served resources for the industrialization. o Lumbering gave rise to environmental science forestry. Enlightenment o Enlightenment dates back to 1600s o Scientific part of romanticism o Human beings are rational beings. They can use logic and reason to solve all of the world's problems. o Famous enlightenment thinkers: Isaac Newton, Ben Franklin o Expand w universities along w industrial revolution as they expanded o People were experiencing fear that we were changing w the environment too much Isaac Newton o English born mathematician o Regarded as one of the real founders of thought o Famous enlightenment thinker Benjamin Franklin o Studied in Europe. Great thinker and inventor o Fully embodied to enlightenment thought where humans are capable of solving problems o US constitution is enlightenment document. Humans can solve everything if they were given the freedom to do it. George Perkins Marsh (1808-1882) o Beneficiary of scientific discipline o Had an impact on utilitarian conservation o Born in Vermont o Became US rep for Vermont congress. Then appointed to be ambassador for foreign country--> first was Turkey and then other was Italy Spent a lot of time in Europe and Mediterranean o Good scientist w law degree and good historian o Compiled book published in 1864 Man and Nature o
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- Fall '08
- Isaac Newton, Age of Enlightenment, Gifford Pinchot, United States Forest Service, National Forestry School