Chap 5 States of Matter_Yap - Cambridge International AS...

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CIE AS ChemistryCambridge International AS Level:CHEMISTRYBy Ms. YAP (B209)Email: [email protected]Chapter 5:States of Matter
CIE AS ChemistryOverview1.INTRODUCTION2.GASKinetic Theory of GasesIdeal Gas Equation- CalculationsDeviations from Ideal Gas Laws3.LIQUIDMeltingFreezingCondensationVaporisation4.SOLIDIonic LatticesMetallic LatticesSimpleMolecular LatticesGiant Molecular StructuresHydrogen-bonded LatticesCeramicsChapter 5: States of Matter
CIE AS ChemistrySTATES OF MATTER
CIE AS ChemistryMatter is made up of very small particlesExists in 3 states:SolidsLiquidsGasesSTATES OF MATTER
CIE AS ChemistrySTATES OF MATTERPropertiesSolidsLiquidsGasesArrangement ofparticlesParticles arecloselypackedwithsmall emptyspacebetween particlesParticlesare looselypackedwithlarger emptyspacebetween particlesParticlesare notarranged in order. Theyfar apartwithlargeempty spaceMovement ofparticlesVibrate, rotateon its ownaxisVibrate, rotateandmovefrom 1 place to anotherVibrate, rotate, movefreely and rapidlyAttraction forcebetween particlesstrongmoderateweakEnergy contentLow energyas themovement is restrictedmoderateHigh energycontent asthe movement isfast andrandomVolumeDefinite (fixed)Definite (fixed)Take volume of container(greatly influenced by T& p)ShapeDefinite (fixed)TakeShape of Container(Fill / partially fillcontainer)Occupy whole volume ofcontainer(Fill container)CompressibilityNotable to compressDifficultto compressCan be compressedeasilyDensityhighModerate to highlow
CIE AS ChemistryGASThe Kinetic Theory of GasesIdeal Gas Equation- CalculationsDeviations from Ideal Gas Law
CIE AS ChemistryTHE KINETIC THEORY OF GASESAssumptions for an ideal gas:1.Gases are made up ofa large no. oftiny particlesofnegligiblevolume, spaced far apart2.No attractive or repulsive forcesbtw the gas particles3.The gas moleculesmove rapidly & randomly4.Allcollisionsbtw the particles areelasticwithno loss of kinetic energy(Collisions btw the moving particles & with the walls of the container)5.Theaverage kinetic energyof the particles isdirectly proportionaltotheabsolute temperature(Increase in T, particles can move faster asthey gain kinetic energy)
CIE AS Chemistryp= pressureinpascals (Pa)V= volumein cubic metres,m3n=number of moles(n=𝑚𝑀𝑟)R=gas constant8.31 J mol1K1T=absolute temperature in kelvin,KIDEAL GAS EQUATIONpV=nRT
CIE AS ChemistryIs derived from(ABC Laws):Avogadro’sLaw:Vnat constant P and TBoyle’sLaw:V𝟏𝑷at constant n and TCharles’Law:VTat constant n and PIDEAL GAS EQUATION*Absolute zerois the temperature @ which a gas would have no volume (intheory)- all gas volume = 0 at 0K or -273˚C
CIE AS ChemistryIDEAL GAS EQUATION𝒑𝑽𝑻p𝒑𝑽𝑻TFor a fixed mass of ideal gas,𝑝1𝑉1𝑇1=𝑝2𝑉2𝑇2𝟏𝐕ppVpAt constant temperature𝑝1𝑉1= 𝑝2𝑉2pVT/KVT/˚CV-273At constant pressure𝑉1𝑇1=𝑉2𝑇2

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