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Unit%207_32_2008 - C HEMISTRY 0320 ORGANIC C HEMISTRY II...

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C HEMISTRY 0320 - O RGANIC C HEMISTRY II Prof. C. S. Wilcox - University of Pittsburgh Unit 7 Reading: Chapter 24 Carbohydrates are ubiquitous components of the biosphere. D-Glucose is one of the most abundant organic molecules on the planet. In this unit, the following aspects of carbohydrate chemistry were examined: I. Structure and Nomenclature. Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones. A carbohydrate can be composed of several polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones that are usually linked through acetal or ketal functional groups. The student should be able to give structures exemplifying the following terms: a) aldose b) aldotetrose c) aldopentose d) aldohexose e) ketohexose f) ketopentose Special names are used to identify the relative stereochemistry of the chiral centers in aldoses. There are two aldotrioses, four aldotetroses, and eight aldohexoses. Know the names for these simple aldoses.
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