Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 One Sample Tests of Hypothesis 1...

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1 Chapter 10: One Sample Tests of Hypothesis 1. Scientific Method a. Ask a question about something you observe (how, what, when , who, which , why, or where) b. Do some background research. How can the question be answered? Have people answered similar questions in the past? c. Construct a hypothesis d. Test the hypothesis by doing an experiment e. Analyze the data from the experiment and draw conclusions f. If the hypothesis is false, construct a new hypothesis that can tested with a new experiment
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2 2. What is a Hypothesis? a. Hypothesis i. A statement about a population parameter subject to verification ii. For example: 1. The average age of college students is 19 2. 35 percent of retirees in the Northern U.S. sell their homes and move to warmer climates within 1 year of retirement a. Scientific hypothesis i. A statement about nature that requires verification b. Statistical hypothesis i. A statement about one or more parameters of a population distribution that requires verification ii. Verify it using the sampling distribution iii. Hypothesis are mutually exclusive 1. If one is true the other must be false a. If the average amount of ketchup in a bottles is 16 ounces, then the alternative is not equal to 16
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3 b. If the average amount of ketchup in a bottle is less than or equal to 16 ounces, then the alternative is greater than the 16. c. If the average amount of ketchup in a bottle is greater than or equal to 16 ounces, then the alternative is less than the 16. 2. The null hypothesis is the one whose tenability is the actually tested (the one we are actually able to test and defend) 3. The alternative hypothesis formulated so that it corresponds to the researchers hunch iv. The process of choosing between the null and alternative hypothesis is called hypothesis testing c. Rejection or non-rejection of null hypothesis i. We do not accept or reject the null hypothesis; we can only reject or not reject the null hypothesis ii. If the null hypothesis is not rejected it is not always true 1. The particular sample is not representative of the population 2. The experimental methodology is not sufficiently sensitive to detect the true situation 3. The sample is too small 3. What is Hypothesis Testing? a. A procedure based on sample evidence and probability theory to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement. b. Can we attribute the difference between our sample statistic and the hypothesized population parameter as due to sampling error? Or is that difference statistically significant, indicating that our hypothesized population parameter is not correct?
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4 c. Example: 4. Five Step Procedure for Testing a Hypothesis? a. State the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis i. Null hypothesis 1. A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of testing numerical evidence 2. The null hypothesis is the hypothesis we are able to test ii. Alternate hypothesis 1. A statement that is accepted if the sample data provides sufficient evidence that the null hypothesis is false 2.
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 One Sample Tests of Hypothesis 1...

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