(Introduction) One of the three founding fathers of Sociology, was nineteenth century sociologist and philosopher, Émile Durkheim. He is principally known for exploring, among many other important concepts, the system of the division of labor in addition to publishing a book entitled similarly The Division of Labor, though the phrase was first coined by Adam Smithin the The Wealth of Nations. Within his published work, Durkheim advises of intangible concepts many are unaware of, such as the social (external) and natural (internal) inequalities saturated in society and how they correspond to mechanical or organic solidarity. He makes clearthe way common values are reinforced through the division of labor and how they can be threatened. As Durkheim shows, external factors are detrimental to solidarity and should be recognized as an incompatible and abnormal form of the division of labor, while natural inequities are sustaining with no bearing on social order. While another principal father of Sociology, German sociologist Karl Marx, believes contrary to Durkheim regarding what the division of labor produces in society and its function as it pertains to inequality.(Body ¶ 1) Social Inequality is the inequality, which has been embedded in the society and is a form of discrimination that is perpetuated through social institutions, incorporating but not limited to attributes such as status and wealth. As learned in class, social inequalities can alsoextend in being defined as justifying and accentuating why certain individuals are inferior over others in terms of their innate design, which effectively determines their social position, occupation, etc. In the aforementioned excerpt from Durkheim, he states, “it is a necessary and sufficient condition for these inequalities neither to be emphasized nor played down through some external cause,” the external causes, being the societally ascribed advantages or disadvantages (312-313).
In contrast, natural inequalities are when individuals are intrinsically superior in distinct characteristics or skills, which enable them to climb to the top for the field that corresponds with their special ability, yet the significant difference is that this is irrelevant of any extraneous socialforces intervening. Durkheim notes that when natural inequalities expressly represent social