Sociology 101-2nd Essay - Sociology 101 Development of Sociological Theory Winter 2016 Professor Prager Take-Home Paper Durkheim in The Division of

Sociology 101-2nd Essay - Sociology 101 Development of...

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Sociology 101, Development of Sociological TheoryWinter, 2016Professor PragerTake-Home PaperDurkheim in The Division of Labor in Societywrites about “the forced division of labor” as an “abnormal form.” He writes (p. 312-3):“We may therefore state that the division of labor only produces solidarity if it is spontaneous, and to the degree that it isspontaneous. But spontaneity must mean not simply the absence of any deliberate, formal type of violence, but of anything that may hamper, even indirectly, the free unfolding of the social force each individual contains within himself. It not only supposes that individuals are not consigned forcibly to performing certain determined functions, but that (Forced) no obstacle whatsoever prevents them from occupying within the ranks of society a position commensurate to their abilities. In short, labor only divides up spontaneously if society is constituted in such a way that social inequalities express precisely natural inequalities. It is a necessary and sufficient condition forthese inequalities neither to be emphasized nor played down through some external cause. In this essay, first explain the meaning of this passage: what does Durkheim mean by social inequality (i.e., how is it different from natural inequality?)? Social Inequality is the inequality, which has been embedded in the society and is form of discrimination that is perpetuated through social institutions, incorporating but not limited to attributes such as status and wealth. Furthermore, social inequalities can also extend in being defined as justifying and accentuating why certain individuals are inferior over others in terms of their innate design, which effectively determines their social position, occupation, etc. In the aforementioned excerpt from Durkheim, he states, “it is a necessary and sufficient condition for these inequalities neither to be emphasized nor played down through some external cause,” the external causes, being the societally ascribed advantages or disadvantages (312-313). In contrast, natural inequalities are when individuals are innately superior in distinct characteristics or skills, which enable them to climb to the top for the field that corresponds with their special ability, yet the significant difference isthat this is irrelevant of any extraneous social forces intervening. Durkheim notes that when natural inequalities expressly represent social inequalities – basically meaning if they align with each other – then the freely moving spontaneous division of labor can occur accordingly. Without the external obstructions imposed by society to govern the

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