Gauss’ Law The net electric flux Φ E through any closed surface is equal to the net charge Q in inside divided by the permittivity constant ²0 : I ~ E · d ~ A = 4 πkQ in = Q in ²0 i . e . Φ E = Q in ²0 with ²0 = 8 . 854 × 10-12 C 2 N-1 m-2 The closed surface can be real or fictitious. It is called “Gaussian surface”. The symbol H denotes an integral over a closed surface in this context.
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