44. Gauss' Law

44. Gauss' Law - Gauss' Law The net electric flux E through...

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Gauss’ Law The net electric flux Φ E through any closed surface is equal to the net charge Q in inside divided by the permittivity constant ² 0 : I ~ E · d ~ A = 4 πkQ in = Q in ² 0 i . e . Φ E = Q in ² 0 with ² 0 = 8 . 854 × 10 - 12 C 2 N - 1 m - 2 The closed surface can be real or fictitious. It is called “Gaussian surface”. The symbol H denotes an integral over a closed surface in this context.
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