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Intelligence - Reasoning Cont Intelligence Reasoning...

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Reasoning Cont. & Intelligence 19:10 Reasoning Heuristics: o Anchoring heuristics Anchoring judgment based on available information o Availability heuristics Estimates of likelihood based on ease with which we can think of examples Both husbands/wives claim responsibility for 16 of 20 activities Easier to recall own experiences Framing: o Manner in which a problem is presented can influence decision Gambler’s Fallacy: o Belief that after run of one type of outcome, a change is “due” to occur. o Each event is independent of the other. Confirmatory bias/Confirmation bias: o Ex. Cards with vowels have even #’s on back. o Tendency to see out evidence consistent with hypothesis Cross-cultural differences: o Western cultures:  Value abstractness more than other cultures o Classification tasks: Taxonomy vs. function
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Ex. Ax, log, shovel, saw Either log or shovel would work depending on cultural background Intelligence Capacity to acquire & apply knowledge Reasoning skills, solving problems, thinking abstractly. Ability to learn from experience and adapt to surrounding environment How to measure intelligence? Sir Fancis Galton Developed fingerprinting and correlation coefficient Multiple dimensions o Speed of processing o Head size o Detection of difference (ex. Weights) Talked about heritability of intelligence Advocated selective breeding (eugenics) Alfred Binet Predict future performance in school Identify children needing additional help Did not claim: o Test measured “intelligence” (This was the Binet-Simon Intelligence test) o Intelligence is innate Determined “mental age” o Compared many kids to these standards Lewis Terman Translated Binet-Simon test to English “Stanford-Binet Test) Developed intelligence quotient (IQ) Wanted to test the myth “early ripe – early rot” but this was quickly disproved IQ o Allows children of different ages to be compared o IQ=(mental age/chronological age) X 100 Large set of test questions o Verbal reasoning o Quantitative reasoning o Abstract reasoning o Short-term/Working memory Now, we use the score test and compare it to a normal distribution.
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Intelligence Cont. & Development 19:10 Yerkes
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Intelligence Cont. & Development
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