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Politica scicne Final Terms

Politica scicne Final Terms - 1.Strategic politicians Goal...

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1.Strategic politicians Goal oriented actors (primary goal is to get elected), behave strategically in pursuit of their goals, consider effect of action on staying in office, need to bargain/compromise, not always strategic (but to succeed, need to be most of the time) Plural executive Commander-in-Chief The role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service Power to Declare War Take care clause requirement that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed. even if they disagree with them President as “clerk” Modern presidency“ a political system in which the president is the central figure and participants actively in both foreign and domestic policy Power to persuade” President’s Professional Reputation Leadership as “bargaining” Going public Permanent Campaign Unilateral action any policy decision made and acted upon by the president and his staff without the explicit approval or consent of congress Executive order A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. Executive orders can implement and give administrative effect to provisions in the Constitution, to treaties, and to statutes Member of Congress goals Single-member-district, plurality rule elections
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Position-taking Mayhew- one of three primary activities undertaken by members of Congree to increase the probability of their reelection. Taking stands on issues and responding to constituents Credit-claiming Mayhew- increase probability of their reelection, involves personal district service. Casework activities of members of Congree that help constituent as individuals; cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have a right to get. Particularized benefits / Earmarks Money set aside in the federal budget by Congress for projects in the home district of a member of Congress. "hidden" congressional provision that directs federal government to fund specific project or exempts specific people or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees Incumbency advantage As defined by Erikson and Wright, the Incumbency Advantage is the advantage gained by House members after serving more than one term. Incumbency Advantage has increased over the last few years due to weak party identification, meaning voters are more easily swayed by standing representatives, and by increased resources to Incumbents which allows them to go home and influence their Constituents more. Proven themselves in Congress Campaign fundraising due to personal connections with the people Gerrymandering of congressional districts Familiarity with the voters and name recognition Lack of media coverage of House elections In position to get help for the people of the district Franking privilege Sophomore Surge An increase in the votes congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection.
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