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Unformatted text preview: Fuller Theological Seminary Post-Reformation & Modern Theology
Lecture Outlines Spring Quarter 2007
John L. Thompson, Instructor Church History 505 This file contains lecture outlines and handouts for a course regularly taught at Fuller Theological Seminary. All rights to this material are reserved. If you are enrolled in this class, you may use and retain a copy of this file in electronic and printed form. If you are reviewing this material from the Fuller Theological Seminary website, you have permission to browse the contents but not to retain an electronic copy nor to print a paper copy. If you have any questions about the course or would like to make further use of these materials, feel free to contact the instructor. Lecture #1: THE CHURCH & THE CHURCHES: Diversity & Divisions in the 16th Century
I. THE MYTH OF A MONOLITHIC CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY (and/or CHURCH) A. The myth of homogeneity B. The reality of diversity (justification, for example) C. The Reformation: two ironies EXCURSUS: A ROAD MAP FOR THE FIRST HALF OF CH 505 (LECTURES #1-6) A. The Reformation and the rise of "denominations" B. Three strands of Protestantism - and their opponents 1. Reformed Orthodoxy (2) vs. Arminianism (3) 2. Anglicanism (4a) vs. Puritanism (4b) & Wesley (6) 3. Lutheran Scholasticism (5a) vs. Pietism (5b) C. Our circuitous, yet linear, route II. LUTHER vs. ROME A. Why did Martin Luther break with Rome? 1. Luther's non-reasons 2. Luther's real reason B. The doctrine of justification (in general) C. Pre-Reformation Roman Catholic views 1. The general schema 2. Aquinas on justification 3. Ockham on justification 4. Justification as "marriage" with Christ D. Luther's doctrine of justification 1. Objections to the Roman doctrine 2. Luther on the marriage metaphor III. CALVIN vs. LUTHER: Why did Calvinism fail to unite with Lutheranism? A. Their common ground B. A difference of "tone" C. Doctrinal differences 1. the Lord's Supper 2. Christ's post-resurrection presence 3. the third use of the law 4. church - state relations IV. THE PROTESTANT REFORMERS ON SCHISM AND ECUMENISM A. The inescapability of the term "schism" B. Ecumenical overtures among the Reformers C. Some lessons to be drawn Quotations pertaining to Lecture #1:
MARTIN LUTHER: 1. "Wyclif and Hus tried to reform the church by attacking the life of the Pope, and they failed, because they were sinners like the Pope. I, however, attacked the doctrine." -- WATR 1.880. 2. "We are justified not by works, yet not without works." 3. "Our faith in Christ does not free us from works but from false opinions concerning works, that is, from the foolish presumption that justification is acquired by works." -- The Freedom of a Christian
(1520); in Hans J. Hillerbrand, The Protestant Reformation (Harper & Row, 1968), pp. 25-26. 4. "It is high time that we should earnestly and honestly take up the Bohemian business in order to unite them with us and us with them, so that on both sides the dreadful accusations, hatred, and envy may cease." -- Address to the German Nobility (1520); cited by John T. McNeill, Unitive Protestantism (John
Knox, 1964), p. 136. 5. "Whoever can do so, as a faithful member of the whole body, must do what he can to procure a truly free council." -- Address to the German Nobility (1520); in McNeill, Unitive Protestantism, p. 100. JOHN CALVIN: 6. "It is not very sound theology to confine a man's thoughts so much to himself, and not to set before him as the prime motive of his existence zeal to show forth the glory of God. For we are born first of all for God, and not for ourselves. . . . It is the duty of a Christian to ascend higher than merely to seek and secure the salvation of his own soul. . . . [Furthermore,] there is nothing more perilous to our salvation than a preposterous and perverse worship of God. . . . The only legitimate worship of God is that which He Himself approved from the beginning." -- Reply to
Sadoleto, in Calvin: Theological Treatises (Westminster, 1954), p. 228. 7. "When we categorically deny to the papists the title of the church, we do not for this reason impugn the existence of churches among them." -- Institutes 4.2.12. MARTIN BUCER: 8. "I believe [Luther and Melanchthon] to be sons of God, but grievously captivated by temptation; for what more serious thing could happen to any mortal than that he should thus fight against the union of the church?" -- Bucer to Ambrose Blaurer (26 Jan 1530); in McNeill, Unitive Protestantism, p. 147. lecture #2: PROTESTANT ORTHODOXY: Lutheranism after Luther / Calvinism after Calvin
I. PROTESTANTISM IN ITS SECOND AND LATER GENERATIONS II. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTESTANT SCHOLASTICISM A. A distinctive approach to the problem of faith ( notitia, assensus, fiducia ) B. The prominence of propositions and philosophy C. The growth of confessional books and catechisms 1. Lutherans: The Book of Concord (1580), including Luther's catechisms (1529), Augsburg
Confession (1530), Smalcald Articles (1537), Formula of Concord (1577). 2. Reformed: Second Helvetic Confession (Bullinger, 1561/66), Heidelberg Catechism (Ursinus & Olevianus,
1563), Westminster Confession, 1648. D. The inspiration of scripture E. The return to method in theology 1. the loci method 2. covenant or federal theology III. THE COVENANT THEOLOGY OF REFORMED ORTHODOXY A. Predestination: some distinctions 1. single vs. double 2. infra- vs. supra-lapsarian 3. various rationales B. The (triplex) covenant scheme 1. the pre-temporal covenant 2. the covenant of works 3. the covenant of grace C. Christ, the mediator of the covenant 1. the triplex munus Christi 2. the rationale of the covenants D. The doctrine of assurance ( the syllogismus practicus ) IV. THE REPUTATION OF REFORMED ORTHODOXY A. The analysis of Alexander Schweizer (1856): Reformed Orthodoxy as metaphysical, predestinarian, Aristotelian, rationalistic, propositional, & faith less central B. A consideration of Schweizer's analysis Some quotations pertaining to Reformed Orthodoxy Calvin on Predestination: Infra- or Supra- lapsarian? 1. " `The Father has chosen us in Christ before the foundation of the world' (Eph. 1:4). Here, surely the fall of Adam is not presupposed as preceding God's decree in time; but it is what God determined before all ages that is shown, when he willed to heal the misery of mankind." -- Institutes 2.12.5. 2. "All of Adam's children have fallen by God's will. . . . But it does not directly follow that God is subject to . . . reproach. . . . Let us ask in turn what they think God owes to man if He would judge him according to His own nature. As all of us are vitiated by sin, we can only be odious to God, and that not from tyrannical cruelty but by the fairest reckoning of justice." -- Institutes 3.23.4, 3.23.3 3. "Whence does it happen that Adam's fall irremediably involved so many peoples, together with their infant offspring, in eternal death unless because it so pleased God? . . . The decree is dreadful, I confess. . . . [Nonetheless] God not only foresaw the fall of the first man, and in him the ruin of his descendants, but also meted it out in accordance with his own decision." -- Institutes 3.23.7 4. "The first man fell because the Lord had judged it to be expedient; why he so judged is hidden from us. Yet it is certain that he so judged because he saw that thereby the glory of his name is duly revealed. . . . Accordingly, we should contemplate the evident cause of condemnation in the corrupt nature of humanity -- which is closer to us -- rather than seek a hidden and utterly incomprehensible cause in God's predestination." -- Institutes 3.23.8 The Westminster Confession (1647): Single or Double? 3.3: By the decree of God, for the manifestation of his glory, some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others fore-ordained to everlasting death. 3.7: The rest of mankind, God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of his own will, whereby he extends or withholds mercy as he pleases, for the glory of his sovereign power over his creatures, to pass by, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to the praise of his glorious justice. The Westminster Confession (1647): Infra- or Supra- ? 5.4: The almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and infinite goodness of God, so far manifest themselves in his providence, that it extends itself even to the first Fall, and all other sins of angels and men, and that not by a bare permission, but such as hath joined with it a most wise and powerful bounding, and otherwise ordering and governing of them, in a manifold dispensation, to his own holy ends; yet so, as the sinfulness thereof proceeds only from the creature, and not from God; who being most holy and righteous, neither is nor can be the author or approver of sin. 6.1: Our first parents, being seduced by the subtlety and temptation of Satan, sinned in eating the forbidden fruit. This their sin God was pleased, according to his wide and holy counsel, to permit, having purposed to order it to his own glory. Lecture #3: ARMINIUS AND THE SYNOD OF DORT
I. ARMINIUS on CHURCH, SACRAMENTS, AND MAGISTRACY A. The church B. The sacraments C. Church and magistracy D. Discipline II. ARMINIUS on SIN, FREE WILL, AND GRACE A. The effect of the fall and original sin B. Human free will and grace 1. Five kinds of freedom 2. Can a fallen will effect spiritual good? 3. Grace: necessary but resistible III. ARMINIUS on JUSTIFICATION AND SANCTIFICATION A. Justification: imputed righteousness B. Sanctification and the possibility of perfection IV. ARMINIUS on ASSURANCE AND PERSEVERANCE A. Against supra-lapsarianism B. Present assurance C. "Believer" vs. "elect" V. ARMINIUS on PREDESTINATION A. The covenant scheme B. Six criteria C. Four decrees 1. to save in Christ 2. to save those who repent and believe 3. to appoint a means of salvation 4. to save individuals ... on the basis of foreknown belief ... by grace VI. THE SYNOD OF DORT (1618) A. Arminius's Remonstrance B. "The five points of Calvinism" 1. Total depravity 2. Unconditional election 3. Limited atonement 4. Irresistible grace 5. Perseverance of the saints Lecture #4: PURITANISM in the 16th & 17th CENTURIES: Roots, Distinctives, & Divisions
I. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION TO THE ELIZABETHAN SETTLEMENT of 1559 A. Developments under Henry VIII (c. 1532-47) 1. Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates (1533), Statutes of Praemunire (1534), Supremacy Act (1534), Act Extinguishing Authority of the Bishop of Rome (1536) 2. Ten Articles (1536) vs. Six Articles (1539) B. Developments under Edward VI (1547-53) 1. Henrician legislation repealed, including the Six Articles 2. Edwardian Homilies, Book of Common Prayer (1549, 1552) 3. Calvinist scholars visit C. Developments under Mary Tudor (1553-58) 1. Alienation of subjects from Roman Catholicism 2. Persecutions and exile to Continent D. Developments under Elizabeth I (1558-1603) 1. Elizabeth's via media 2. The Elizabethan Settlement (1559) a. Act of Royal Supremacy b. Act of Uniformity 3. Revision and reinstatement of Book of Common Prayer 4. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion II. DISTINCTIVES OF PURITAN THEOLOGY AND PRACTICE A. Authority of scripture 1. Wilcox & Field's Admonition to Parliament (1572) 2. Whitgift vs. Cartwright: the Second Admonition B. "Experienced" predestination C. Preaching style D. Love of learning III. THE PARTIES WITHIN PURITANISM A. Conforming puritanism B. Non-conforming puritanism 1. Presbyterians a. Cartwright's Six Articles b. Three developments under Elizabeth I 2. Congregationalists a. Independents vs. Separatists b. Theology and worship 3. Baptists a. General Baptists b. Particular Baptists Puritans and Anglicans in the 16th and 17th centuries !"# $ % # & ! ' ' (( ' # ! ) *% !
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*% . $+, ! WHO'S WHO: AMES, William (1576-1633); authored The Marrow of Theology; opposed Arminius. BANCROFT, Richard (1544-1610); Archbishop of Canterbury, 1604-1610. BOLTON, Robert (1572-1631); conforming Puritan preacher. BROWNE, Robert (1553-1633); separatist, founder of English Congregationalism. CARTWRIGHT, Thomas (1535-1603); early Presbyterian, supporter of Wilcox & Field. GRINDAL, Edmund (1519-83); Archbishop of Canterbury, 1575-83; pro-prophesyings. HOOKER, Richard (1554-1600); authored Thomist Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity. JEWEL, John (1522-1571); Marian exile, pro-Elizabethan Settlement, wrote Apology. PERKINS, William (1558-1602); Puritan, casuist, teacher of William Ames. SMYTH, John (1565-1612); self-baptized early General Baptist, Mennonite interests. WHITGIFT, John (1530-1604); Archbishop of Canterbury, 1583-1604; anti-Cartwright. Lecture #5: LUTHERAN SCHOLASTICISM & THE RISE OF PIETISM
I. LUTHERAN ORTHODOXY: THE SEEDBED FOR PIETISM A. "Pietist" defined B. The affinity of Pietism with Calvinism and Puritanism C. The pietist critique of the Lutheran Orthodox on faith II. SPENER ON THE LUTHERAN CHURCH: A CURE FOR ITS CHRONIC ILLS A. Spener's diagnosis of Lutheranism (pp. 43-68) 1. "Defects in the civil authorities" a. self-indulgence, nominal Christianity b. Luther's Friendly Admonition (1525) c. the Thirty Years War (1618-48) & Peace of Westphalia 2. "Defects in the clergy" a. orthodoxy vs. orthopraxis b. unbelieving preachers? c. the simplicity of Christ 3. "Defects in the common people" -- Luther and Melanchthon in Spener's theology B. Spener's prescription: six points of reform (pp. 87-118) 1. "More extensive use of the Word of God" a. third use of the law b. specific rules c. prophesyings & ecclesiolae in ecclesia 2. "Exercise of the spiritual priesthood" -- Luther: vocation vs. universal priesthood 3. "Christian knowledge vs. Christian practice" -- The Testament of John in Spener & Lessing 4. "Moderation in religious controversies" -- Spener's mysticism, ecumenism, etc. 5. "Reform of schools and universities" 6. "Sermons for edification, not entertainment or erudition" III. OTHER CURRENTS IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY PIETISM A. Medieval and Lutheran mysticism 1. The medieval model of mystical theology 2. Luther and the "democratization" of mysticism 3. Pietism's mystical synthesis B. "Radical Pietism": Gottfried Arnold (1666-1714) 1. Boehmism (from Jacob Boehme, 1575-1624) 2. Quietism 3. Separatist pietism 4. Apocalypticism Lecture #6: THE THEOLOGY OF JOHN WESLEY
I. AN INTRODUCTION TO JOHN WESLEY'S THEOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS A. The diluted influence of Calvinism and everything else B. Wesley as a bridge between opposites: "antinomies" II. THE ALDERSGATE EXPERIENCE AS A SOURCE FOR WESLEY'S THEOLOGY A. Wesley's theological development to Aldersgate B. The theology of Wesley's "conversion" III. THE SELF-DEFINITION of EARLY METHODISM: CONTINUITY AND DISCONTINUITY with ANGLICANISM AND THE MORAVIANS A. Wesley's doctrinal standards 1. 39 Articles, Edwardian Homilies, Book of Common Prayer 2. 44 Sermons, Explanatory Notes, Hymns, Conference Minutes B. The rift between Methodism and the Church of England C. The break with the Moravians over faith and sanctification 1. the nature of justifying faith 2. the use of (ecclesial) means of grace IV. TENSION AND DIALECTIC IN WESLEY'S THEOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS A. Free response + Total depravity = Universal prevenient grace B. Holiness, no imputation + Sola fide = Christian perfection C. Possible apostasy + Perseverance = Witness of the Spirit V. JOHN WESLEY'S "EVANGELICAL CATHOLICISM" Quotations pertaining to the theology of John Wesley: 1. From MARTIN LUTHER'S PREFACE TO ROMANS: "Faith is not that human notion and dream that some hold for faith. Because they see that no betterment of life and no good works follow it, and yet they can hear and say much about faith, they fall into error and say, `Faith is not enough; one must do works in order to be righteous and be saved.' This is the reason why, when they hear the gospel, they go ahead and by their own powers fashion an idea in their hearts which says, `I believe.' This they hold for true faith. But it is a human imagination and idea that never reaches the depths of the heart, and so nothing comes of it and no betterment follows it. Faith however, is a divine work in us. It changes us and makes us to be born anew of God (John 1:13). It kills the old Adam and makes altogether different men of us in heart and spirit and mind and powers, and it brings with it the Holy Spirit. O, it is a living, busy, active, mighty thing, this faith, and so it is impossible for it not to do good works incessantly. It does not ask whether there are good works to do, but before the question rises it has already done them and is always at the doing of them" (LW 35.370). Quotations pertaining to the theology of John Wesley, continued: 2. From Wesley's Journal (24 May 1738): "About a quarter before nine, while he was describing the change which God works in the heart through faith in Christ, I felt my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone for my salvation; and an assurance was given me that he had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death" (in Albert C. Outler, John Wesley, p. 66). 3. From Wesley's Journal (24 May 1738): "Herein I found [in what] the difference between this and my former state chiefly consisted. I was striving, yea, fighting with all my might [against temptation] under the law, as well as [now] under grace. But then I was sometimes, if not often, conquered; now, I was always conqueror" (in Outler, p. 67). 4. From Wesley's Journal (9 May 1738): "I preached at St. Helen's [church] to a very numerous congregation. . . . My heart was now so enlarged to declare the love of God to all that were oppressed by the devil, that I did not wonder in the least when I was afterwards told, `Sir, you must preach here no more'" (in Outler, p. 56). 5. From Wesley's Journal (31 Dec 1739): "As to `faith,' you [Moravians] believe: (1) There are no `degrees of faith,' and that no man has any degree of faith before all things in him are become new. . . . (2) Accordingly, you believe there is no justifying faith, . . . short of this. . . . Whereas I believe: (1) There are degrees of faith and that a man may have some degree of it before all things in him are become new. . . . (2) Accordingly, I believe there is a degree of justifying faith . . . short of, and commonly antecedent to, this" (in Outler, pp. 356f). 6. From Wesley's Journal (31 Dec 1739): "As to the `way of faith,' you [Moravians] believe: That the way to attain it is to `wait' for Christ, and be `still,' i.e.:  Not to use what we [Anglicans] term the `means of grace';  Not to go to church;  Not to communicate;  Not to fast;  Not to use so much private prayer;  Not to read the Scripture - because you believe these are not `means of grace' (i.e. do not ordinarily convey God's grace to unbelievers) and that it is impossible for a man to use them without trusting in them;  Not to do temporal good;  Nor to attempt doing spiritual good - because, you believe, no fruit of the Spirit is given by those who have it not themselves, and that those who have not faith are utterly blind, and therefore unable to guide other souls. "Whereas I believe: The way to attain [faith] is to `wait' for Christ and be `still' - in  using all the means of grace. Therefore, I believe it right for him who knows he has not faith (i.e. that conquering faith):  To go to church;  To communicate;  To fast;  To use as much private prayer as he can, and  To read the Scripture . . .  To do all the temporal good he can; And  to endeavour after doing spiritual good - because I know many fruits of the Spirit are given by those who have them not themselves; and that those who have not faith, or but in the lowest degree, may have more light from God, more wisdom for the guiding of other souls, than many that are strong in faith" (in Outler, pp. 357f). 7. From Wesley's "On Working out Your Salvation" (a sermon): "Allowing that all the souls of men are dead in sin by nature, this excuses none, seeing that there is no man that is in a state of mere nature; there is no man, unless he has quenched the Spirit, that is wholly void of the grace of God. No man living is entirely destitute of what is vulgarly called natural conscience. But this is not natural: It is more properly termed, preventing grace. Every man has a greater or lesser measure of this. . . . So that no man sins because he has not grace, but because he does not use the grace which he hath" (in Works 6.512). Study questions on John Wesley, A PLAIN ACCOUNT OF CHRISTIAN PERFECTION 1. What are the various kinds of perfection Wesley mentions? Which are achievable? How and when? 2. What is the relationship between justification, sanctification, salvation, perfection, and the reception of the Holy Spirit? 3. What are the stages of the "typical" Christian life according to Wesley? 4. According to Wesley, can a true Christian lose salvation? 5. What does Wesley mean by "faith," and what role does faith play in the Christian life? (Another way to ask this is, How is faith a factor in Questions 1-4?) 6. What kinds of arguments from Scripture does Wesley employ? What other arguments are used? NOTES: (1) Wesley's Plain Account is really a compilation or anthology of all that Wesley ever wrote on perfection; hence its somewhat repetitive character! (2) Late in this work, Wesley refers to "enthusiasm." He's using this in its technical sense, to refer to any outward manifestation of (what we today would call) "charismatic" phenomena. Literally, the term enthusiasm means "Godpossessed" [etymology: en + theos (Greek for "in" + "God"), meaning to have God within oneself]. Study questions on Gotthold Lessing, LESSING'S THEOLOGICAL WRITINGS 1. What is the key contrast in Lessing's dictum (on p. 53) concerning the "accidental truths of history" and the "necessary truths of reason"? Why does Lessing make this assertion? To what extent is his statement true? Would a twentieth-century non-Christian agree? 2. How (in his various essays) does Lessing attempt to salvage the Christian religion? (Or, what is it from the Christian religion that Lessing does attempt to salvage?) What would be "the Gospel according to Lessing"? 3. What is the content of "natural religion"? NOTE: Lessing draws a distinction between "natural" religion and "positive" or "revealed" religion. This may be a usage of positive which is new to you. "Positive" in this sense is best defined by its contextual opposition to "natural." A religion is "positive" if it has been formally established or founded, whereas natural religion exists and has always existed without anyone having had to establish doctrines, rituals, or institutions. The positive religions would thus include Christianity, Judaism, Islam, etc. Lecture #7: ENLIGHTENMENT CHRISTIANITY: The Gospel according to Natural Religion
I. THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE HISTORY OF DOCTRINE A. Pietism's challenge to Protestant Orthodoxy B. The Enlightenment's challenge to Orthodoxy (and Pietism) II. NATURAL RELIGION A. What is "natural religion"? B. Some specific accounts of natural religion 1. Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1648) a. There is one supreme God; b. He ought to be worshipped; c. Virtue and piety are the chief part of divine worship; d. We ought to be sorry for our sins and repent [of] them; e. Divine goodness dispenses rewards and punishments both in this life and after it. 2. Voltaire (Franois-Marie Arouet, 1694-1778) 3. Herman Samuel Reimarus (1694-1768) 4. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) C. An analysis of natural religion 1. The three tenets of the Enlightenment credo: a. There is a God, who is good and who created the world; b. The best way of serving this God is by a virtuous life; c. The soul is immortal and will receive reward or punishment on the basis of this life. 2. Natural religion and Christianity: three options D. The tripartition of Christendom III. LESSING on Christianity, Enlightenment, & Natural Religion (discussion) Some quotations illustrative of Enlightenment Christianity: 1. VOLTAIRE: "I understand by `natural religion' the principles of morality common to the human race." 2. VINCENT OF LERINS: "That alone is to be considered Catholic truth which has been believed everywhere, always, and by all (ubique, semper, ab omnibus)." 3. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: "I never doubted the existence of a deity, that he made the world and governed it by his providence, that the most acceptable service of God was the doing of good, that our souls are immortal, and that our work will be rewarded here or hereafter." Lecture #8: THE THEOLOGY OF IMMANUEL KANT
I. INTRODUCTION TO KANT A. His pietistic upbringing B. His reaction against Pietist hypocrisy C. An ambivalent assessment of Pietism II. KANT'S CRITIQUES A. The Critique of Pure Reason (1781) 1. Reaction against Enlightenment and "natural religion" 2. The demolishing of the "proofs" for God's existence 3. Reason: limited to the realm of the mind and senses 4. The possibility of a "beyond" B. The Critique of Practical Reason (1788) 1. Our experience of morality, moral values, moral judgments 2. The inference of a moral law ( the "categorical imperative"):
"Always act only in such a way that you could will your conduct to be made a universal law." 3. Further implications: freedom (justice), God, immortality 4. Kant's "proof" of God's existence: Not a rational necessity, but a moral necessity ("pure" versus "practical" reason). III. RECONSTRUCTING CHRISTIANITY: Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone A. Presuppositions and method: reason vs. revelation 1. Kant's "experiment" 2. On interpreting scripture B. Kant's doctrine of God C. Anthropology, sin, and the Fall D. Grace in salvation and redemption E. Kant's Christology: archetype vs. exemplar F. "True religion," "true worship," and the Church Some quotations from Immanuel Kant: 1. "My mother was a sweet-tempered, affectionate, pious and upright woman and a tender mother, who led her children to the fear of God by pious teaching and virtuous example. She often took me outside of the city, directed my attention to the works of God, expressed herself with a pious rapture [about] His omnipotence, wisdom, and goodness, and impressed on my heart a deep reverence for the Creator of all things." [Cited by T. M. Greene, Introduction to Religion
Within the Limits of Reason Alone p. xxvii.] 2. "In the year 1724, on Saturday the 22nd of April at five in the morning my son Immanuel was born into the world and on the 23rd he received holy baptism. ... May God preserve him in His covenant of grace unto his blessed end, for Jesus Christ's sake. Amen." [Cited by Greene, p. xxvii.] Some quotations from Immanuel Kant, continued: 3. "One may say of pietism what one will; it suffices that the people to whom it was a serious matter were distinguished in a manner deserving of all respect. They possessed the highest good which man can enjoy - that repose, that cheerfulness, that inner peace which is disturbed by no passions. No want or persecution rendered them discontented; no controversy was able to stir them to anger or enmity." [Cited by Greene, p. xxix.] 4. "... An historical account may be put to moral use without deciding whether this is the intention of the author or merely our interpretation, provided this meaning is true in itself, apart from all historical proof. ... We must not quarrel unnecessarily over a question or over its historical aspect, when ... it in no way helps us to be better men. ... That historical knowledge which has no inner bearing valid for all men belongs to the class of adiaphora, which each man is free to hold as he finds edifying" [Religion Within Limits, p. 39n]. 5. "Frequently this [rational, moral] interpretation may, in light of the text (of the revelation), appear forced; ... and yet if the text can possibly support it, it must be preferred to a literal interpretation which either contains nothing at all [helpful] to morality or else actually works counter to moral incentives" [Religion Within Limits, p. 101]. 6. "I raise the question as to whether morality should be expounded according to the Bible or whether the Bible should not rather be expounded according to morality" [Religion Within Limits, p. 101n]. 7. "The final purpose ... of reading these holy scriptures, or of investigating their content, is to make men better; the historical element, which contributes nothing to this end, is something which is in itself quite indifferent, and we can do with it what we like. ... Since the moral improvement of men constitutes the real end of all religion of reason, it will comprise the highest principle of all Scriptural exegesis" [Religion Within Limits, p. 102]. 8. "There is one thing in our soul which we cannot cease from regarding with the highest wonder ... and for which admiration is not only legitimate but even exalting, and that is the original moral predisposition in us. ... The very incomprehensibility of this predisposition, ... announces [its] divine origin" [Religion Within Limits, p. 44f]. 9. "Despite the fall, the injunction that we ought to become better men resounds unabatedly in our souls; hence this must be within our power ..." [Religion Within Limits, p. 40]. 10. "Duty bids us do this, and duty demands nothing of us which we cannot do. ... Duty commands [everyone] unconditionally: he ought to remain true to his resolve; and thence he rightly concludes that he must be able to do so, and that his will is therefore free. ... For when the moral law commands that we ought now to be better men, it follows inevitably that we must be able to be better men" [Religion Within Limits, pp. 43, 45n, 46]. 11. "It is not essential, and hence not necessary, for every one to know what God does or has done for his salvation, but it is essential to know what man himself must do in order to become worthy of this assistance" [Religion Within Limits, p. 47]. 12. "The Teacher of the Gospel ... declared that servile belief (taking the form of confessions and practices on days of divine worship) is essentially vain and that moral faith, which alone renders men holy `as their Father in Heaven is holy' and which proves its genuineness by a good course of life, is the only saving faith" [Religion Within Limits, p. 119, emphasis added]. Lecture #9: THE THEOLOGY OF FRIEDRICH SCHLEIERMACHER
I. The Romantic movement of the late 18th century A. The legacy of Kant B. Romanticism as a reaction against Kant 1. The rejection of rationalism and universality 2. Intuition, affection, individuality 3. Shared optimism, diverse imagery 4. Transcendentalism, pantheism II. Theological influences in Schleiermacher's early life A. His Enlightened, Reformed, Moravian father B. His Moravian schooling and commitment C. Enlightenment and cultured humanism at Halle D. Ordination: the Reformed, Romantic pastor E. Developments after the Speeches of 1799 III. Schleiermacher's Speeches: What is religion? (discussion) IV. Schleiermacher's agenda in the Speeches (summary) A. What religion is not B. What religion is: An analysis C. The forerunner of "absolute dependence" V. Whence the Christian religion? The Glaubenslehre A. The centrality of God-consciousness B. The place of a mediator in religion C. Schleiermacher's "catalytic" Christology D. Christian doctrine in the life of the Church VI. Schleiermacher's legacy for liberal theology A. Kant, Schleiermacher, and the religious a priori 1. Some later equivalents 2. Some searching questions B. Schleiermacher's theological agenda 1. Articulating a "common inner experience" 2. The crisis of science and religion 3. The "eternal covenant" and "critical correlation" Quotations pertaining to Friedrich Schleiermacher
1. "Consider that you speak to people who believe in a revelation and that it is your duty to reach them at their level." --The advice of Schleiermacher's father; in Martin Redeker, Friedrich Schleiermacher (Fortress, 1978), p. 8. 2. "God has given human beings the power to strive for perfection."
--Schleiermacher, in Redeker, p. 13. 3. "[Our] darkened and imperfect God-consciousness by itself is not an existence of God in human nature, but only insofar as we bring Christ with us in thought and relate it to Him." Schl., The Christian Faith, p. 387. More quotations pertaining to Friedrich Schleiermacher
4. "The task of ministry [is] that of giving a clear and enlivening description of a common inner experience, and what emerges as doctrinal teaching is really only a preparation and a means to this end. We do not fancy that we are introducing into our church communities something new. ... Rather ... we serve our brothers only by explaining more clearly to them what [this common inner experience] is and so awaken in them the joy in it as well as concern --Schleiermacher to Lcke, in On the Glaubenslehre: Two Letters to Dr. Lcke, p. 41 for it." 5. "When I think about the impending crisis, I realize that, unless I were to exclude all science from my life, I would have to choose between two alternatives. [Either I can leave Christianity to science], which will then decide whether it is right and worth the trouble to [salvage Christianity (i.e., as valid)]. Or I can take my faith on loan --Schleiermacher to Lcke, in On the Glaubenslehre, p. 63 from [purely theological] speculation." 6. "Unless . . . our church . . . endeavors to establish an eternal covenant between the living Christian faith and completely free, independent scientific inquiry, so that faith does not hinder science and science does not exclude faith, it fails to meet adequately the need of our time. . . . [We must] participate actively in the building up of both the church and science. [This is precisely what I am doing in The Christian Faith, where] I show as best I could that every dogma that truly represents an element of our Christian consciousness can be so formulated that it --Schleiermacher to Lcke, in On the Glaubenslehre, p. 64 remains free from entanglements with science." 7. RUDOLF OTTO (1917): "Schleiermacher has the credit of isolating a very important element in such an experience. This is the `feeling of dependence.' But this important discovery of Schleiermacher is open to criticism in more than one respect. In the first place, . . . [this] `feeling of dependence' . . . is yet at the same time far more than, and something other than, merely a feeling of dependence. Desiring to give it a name of its own, I propose to call it `creature-consciousness' or creature-feeling. It is the emotion of a creature, submerged and overwhelmed by its --The Idea of the Holy, pp. 9-10 own nothingness in contrast to that which is supreme above all creatures." 8. ALBERT SCHWEITZER (1936): "If we ask, `What is the immediate fact of my consciousness? What do I selfconsciously know of myself, making abstractions of all else, from childhood to old age? To what do I always return?' we find the simple fact of consciousness is this, I will to live." --"The Ethics of Reverence for Life," Christendom 1 (1936): 225-39 9. DAVID TRACY (1975): "A contemporary fundamental Christian theology can best be described as philosophical reflection upon the meanings present in common human experience and language, and upon the meanings present in the Christian fact. . . . The theologian is obliged to explicate how and why the existential meanings proper to Christian existential self-understanding are present in common human experience. As long as one's understanding of the concept experience is not confined to . . . sense-data but involves a recognition of the pre-reflective, preconceptual, pre-thematic realm of the everyday, then the task of theology in this moment of its enterprise seems clear. That task is the need to explicate a pre-conceptual dimension to our common shared experience that can --Blessed Rage for Order: The New Pluralism in Theology, pp. 43, 47 legitimately be described as religious." 10. COBB & GRIFFIN (1972): "Doctrine is a form given to consciously held beliefs. Such beliefs are derived from induction, deduction, and authority, as well as from immediate experience, and there is great diversity among them. Belief at this level must be distinguished from the complex of prereflective beliefs that we all hold in common, since we all immediately apprehend a common reality in every moment of our experience. These deeper beliefs are originally preconscious and prereflective. They may or may not emerge into conscious awareness. . . . This raises the question as to whether doctrines, as consciously formulated beliefs, are important. It is now widely agreed that "saving faith," the kind of faith that alone can bring wholeness, is primarily a matter of the basic emotions, attitudes, and commitments from which one's behavior follows. That is, faith is fundamentally a mode of existence. Beliefs are important only to the extent that they support this mode of existence. If all people necessarily believe in God at the deepest level of their being, even when they consciously affirm atheism, why is it important for us to reflect about our God-consciousness? Are not conscious beliefs about God at best a redundant duplication of our prereflective faith, and at worst an ineffectual attempt to deny it? -- John Cobb & David Ray Griffin, Process Theology, pp. 30-31 Lecture #10: THE THEOLOGY OF ADOLF HARNACK: Classic Liberal Protestantism
I. Harnack's background and life's work (1851-1934) A. Harnack's research and publications B. Harnack as a disciple of Albrecht Ritschl (1822-1889) C. The History of Dogma and "Hellenization" II. Harnack's What is Christianity? (1899-1900) A. Harnack's purpose: the "essence" of Christianity B. Harnack's methodology: "historical science" and "experience of life" 1. "Experience of life": existential validity, simplicity 2. "Historical science": the sources for authentic Christianity C. Harnack's findings: the "kernel" of the Gospel 1. The Kingdom of God and its coming a. The two aspects of the kingdom's coming: outer and inner b. Harnack's rejection of Jesus' apocalypticism c. Harnack's individualism: "God and the soul, the soul and its God" 2. The Fatherhood of God and the infinite value of the human soul a. The universal sonship of the human soul b. Jesus' catalytic role 3. The higher righteousness and the commandment of love D. "Six problems" 1. The Gospel and the world, or the problem of asceticism 2. The Gospel and the poor, or the question of social reform 3. The Gospel and law, or the question of political order 4. The Gospel and work, or the question of culture 5. The Gospel and Christology: Jesus' self-understanding a. Christology: an overemphasized (and overdeveloped) doctrine b. Jesus' message: John 14:15 c. ". . . the Father only, and not the Son" 6. The Gospel and doctrine, or the question of creed III. DUALISM: The malaise of turn-of-the-century Liberalism? A. Objection: "Isn't the Gospel . . . outmoded?" B. Harnack's answer: 1. "Husk" vs. "kernel" (revisited) 2. The modernity of the Gospel's dualism C. Excursus: the case of Albert Schweitzer 1. Schweitzer's Quest (1906) and the end of the historical Jesus 2. Schweitzer's resurrection of the "spiritual" Jesus 3. Schweitzer's dualism: "world-view" vs. "life-view" a. A rational world-view can discover no reason to live . . . b. . . . but one's life-view is confronted by the will-to-live. c. Therefore the will must subordinate world-view to life-view D. The significance of Harnack's and Schweitzer's dualism Quotations from Adolf Harnack, WHAT IS CHRISTIANITY? Harper & Row, 1957 1. "The historian, whose business and highest duty it is to determine what is of permanent value, is of necessity required not to cleave to words but to find out what is essential" (p. 13). 2. "In dealing with religion, is it not after all with the Christian religion alone that we have to do? Other religions no longer stir the depths of our hearts" (p. 6). 3. "No! the Christian religion is something simple and sublime; it means one thing and one thing only: Eternal life in the midst of time, by the strength and under the eyes of God" (p. 8). 4. "The Gospel in the Gospel is something so simple, something that speaks to us with so much power, that it cannot easily be mistaken. . . . No one who possesses a fresh eye for what is alive, and a true feeling for what is really great, can fail to see it and distinguish it from its [various historical appearances]" (p. 14; cf. p. 51). 5. "Miracles, it is true, do not happen; but of the marvelous and the inexplicable there is plenty" (p. 28). 6. "The kingdom of God comes by coming to the individual, by entering into his soul and laying hold of it. True, the kingdom of God is the rule of God; but it is the rule of the holy God in the hearts of individuals. . . . It is not a question of angels and devils, thrones and principalities, but of God and the soul, the soul and its God" (p. 56; cf. p. 34). 7. "[Jesus's teaching about the kingdom abandons] everything that is external and merely future. . . . It is the individual, not the nation or the state, which is redeemed" (p. 60). 8. "The whole of Jesus' message may be reduced to these two heads -- God as Father, and the human soul so ennobled that it can and does unite with him" (p. 63). 9. "[Jesus] gave perfectly simple expression to profound and all-important truths, as though they could not be otherwise; as though he were uttering something that was self-evident; as though he were only reminding men of what they all know already, because it lives in the innermost part of their souls" (p. 68). 10. "To represent the Gospel as an ethical message is no depreciation of its value. The ethical system which Jesus found prevailing in his nation was both ample and profound. . . . [Jesus's primary change was simply to sever] the connection which existed in his day between ethics and the external forms of religious worship and technical observance" (pp. 70-71). 11. "The Gospel . . . is concerned not with material things but with the souls of men" (p. 116). 12. "In the course of this controversy men put an end to brotherly fellowship for the sake of a nuance. . . . It is a gruesome story. On the question of `Christology' men beat their religious doctrines into terrible weapons and spread fear and intimidation everywhere. This attitude still continues: Christology is treated as though the Gospel had no other problem to offer" (p. 125). 13. "[Jesus] desired no other belief in his person and no other attachment to it than is contained in the keeping of his commandments" (p. 125). 14. "The Gospel, as Jesus proclaimed it, has to do with the Father only and not with the Son" (p. 144). 15. "We are unable to bring our knowledge [of the world] together with the contents of our inner life, into the unity of a philosophic theory" (p. 151). 16. "That there is a unity underlying this [dualism] is a conviction which can be gained from experience" (p. 150). 17. "We have to do with a dualism which arose we know not how; but as moral beings we are convinced that, as it has been given [to] us in order that we may overcome it in ourselves and bring it to a unity, so also it goes back to an original unity, and will at last find its reconciliation in the great far-off event, the realised dominion of the Good" (p. 151). Some quotations from Albert Schweitzer 1. "When, at some future day, our period of civilisation shall lie, closed and completed, before the eyes of later generations, German theology will stand out as a great, a unique phenomenon in the mental and spiritual life of our time. For nowhere save in the German temperament can there be found in the same perfection the living complex of conditions and factors -- of philosophic thought, critical acumen, historical insight, and religious feeling -- without which no deep theology is possible. And the greatest achievement of German theology is the critical investigation of the life of Jesus. What it has accomplished here has laid down the conditions and determined the course of the religious thinking of the future" [Quest, p. 1]. 2. "Thus each successive epoch of theology found its own thoughts in Jesus; that was, indeed, the only way in which it could make Him live. But it was not only each epoch that found its reflection in Jesus; each individual created Him in accordance with his own character. There is no historical task which so reveals a man's true self as the writing of a Life of Jesus. No vital force comes into the figure unless a man breathes into all the hate or all the love of which he is capable. The stronger the love, or the stronger the hate, the more life-like is the figure which is produced" [Quest, p. 4]. 3. [Schweitzer's discussion of Weisse on the resurrection:] "What, then, is the historical fact in the resurrection? `The historical fact,' replies Weisse, `is only the existence of a belief -- not the belief of the later Christian Church in the myth of the bodily resurrection of the Lord -- but the personal belief of the Apostles and their companions in the miraculous presence of the risen Christ in the visions and appearances which they experienced.' ... The only thing which is certain is `that the resurrection of Jesus is a fact which belongs to the domain of the spiritual and psychic life, and which is not related to outward corporeal existence in such a way that the body which was laid in the grave could have shared therein.' ... [Weisse's] discussion of the question is, both from the religious and the historical point of view, the most satisfying treatment of it with which we are acquainted" [Quest, p. 131]. 4. "The final decision of the question [of eschatology] is ... to be found ... in the examination of the whole course of Jesus' life. On which of the two presuppositions, the assumption that His life was completely dominated by eschatology, or the assumption that He repudiated it, do we find it easiest to understand the connexion of events in the life of Jesus, His fate, and the emergence of the expectation of the Parousia in the community of His disciples?" [Quest, p. 257]. 5. "There is silence all around. The Baptist appears, and cries: `Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.' Soon after that comes Jesus, and in the knowledge that He is the coming Son of Man, [he] lays hold of the wheel of the world to set it moving on that last revolution which is to bring all ordinary history to a close. It refuses to turn, and He throws Himself upon it. Then it does turn; and crushes Him. Instead of bringing in the eschatological conditions, he has destroyed them. The wheel rolls onward, and the mangled body of the one immeasurably great Man, who was strong enough to think of Himself as the spiritual ruler of mankind and to bend history to His purpose, is hanging upon it still. That is His victory and His reign" [Quest, p. 371]. 6. "Those who are fond of talking about negative theology can find their account here. There is nothing more negative than the result of the critical study of the Life of Jesus. The Jesus of Nazareth who came forward publicly as the Messiah, who preached the ethic of the Kingdom of God, who founded the Kingdom of Heaven upon earth, and died to give His work its final consecration, never had any existence. He is a figure designed by rationalism, endowed with life by liberalism, and clothed by modern theology in an historical garb" [Quest, p. 398]. Some more quotations from Albert Schweitzer 7. "But the truth is, it is not Jesus as historically known, but Jesus as spiritually arisen within men, who is significant for our time and can help it. Not the historical Jesus, but the spirit which goes forth from Him and in the spirits of men strives for new influence and rule, is that which overcomes the world. ... The abiding and eternal in Jesus is absolutely independent of historical knowledge and can only be understood by contact with His spirit which is still at work in the world" [Quest, p. 401]. 8. "Because it is thus preoccupied with the general, the universal, modern theology is determined to find it world-accepting ethic in the teaching of Jesus. Therein lies its weakness. The world affirms itself automatically; the modern spirit cannot but affirm it. But why on that account abolish the conflict between modern life, with the world-affirming spirit which inspires it as a whole, and the world-negating spirit of Jesus? Why spare the spirit of the individual man its appointed task of fighting its way through the world-negation of Jesus, of contending with Him at every step over the value of the material and intellectual goods -- a conflict in which it may never rest? ... This general affirmation of the world, however, if it is to be Christian, must in the individual spirit be Christianised and transfigured by the personal rejection of the world which is preached in the sayings of Jesus" [Quest, p. 402]. 9. "He comes to us as One unknown, without a name, as of old, by the lake-side, He came to those men who knew Him not. He speaks to us the same word: `Follow thou me!' and sets us to the tasks which He has to fulfil for our time. He commands. And to those who obey Him, whether they be wise or simple, He will reveal Himself in the toils, the conflict, the sufferings which they shall pass through in His fellowship, and, as an ineffable mystery, they shall learn in their own experience Who He is" [Quest, p. 403]. 10. "Two perceptions cast their shadows over my existence. One consists in my realization that the world is inexplicably mysterious and full of suffering; the other in the fact that I have been born into a period of spiritual decadence in mankind. ... With the spirit of the age I am in complete disagreement, because it is filled with disdain for thinking" [Out of My Life and Thought, p. 219]. 11. "The philosophy that abandons the old Rationalism must begin by meditating on itself. Thus, if we ask, `What is the immediate fact of my consciousness? What do I self-consciously know of myself, making abstractions of all else, from childhood to old age? To what do I always return?' we find the simple fact of consciousness is this, I will to live. Through every stage of life, this is the one thing I know about myself. I do not say, `I am life': for life continues to be a mystery too great to understand. I only know that I cling to it" ["Reverence for Life," pp. 182-83]. 12. "The solution is, not to try to get rid of dualism from the world, but to realize that it can no longer do us any harm. This is possible, if we leave behind us all the artifices and unveracities of thought and bow to the fact that, as we cannot harmonize our life-view and our world-view, we must make up our minds to put the former above the latter. The volition which is given in our will-to-live reaches beyond our knowledge of the world. What is decisive for our life-view is not knowledge of the world but the certainty of the volition which is given in our will-to-live.... World-view is a product of life-view not vice-versa" [Philosophy of Civilization, p. 78]. Lecture #11: THE DEBATE BETWEEN ADOLF HARNACK & KARL BARTH Liberalism & Neo-orthodoxy on theology's object and objectivity
I. BARTH'S THEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TO HIS 1922 ROMANS A. The student of Adolf Harnack B. The student of Wilhelm Herrmann C. A stint with Die Christliche Welt D. The Red Pastor of Safenwil (1909-1922) E. The "Appeal to the World of Culture" (August 1914) F. Romans, first edition (1916-1919) II. BARTH, HARNACK, HISTORY AND EXEGESIS (discussion) III. THE BARTH/HARNACK CORRESPONDENCE: FOUR ISSUES A. The method of theology 1. Harnack: a. scientific objectivity b. the historical-critical method c. the principle of analogy d. husk and kernel, again e. the flaws of orthodoxy and pietism 2. Barth: a. the tyranny of method b. historical criticism as prolegomena c. the collapse of analogies d. the gospels as signs B. The question of theological "objectivity" 1. Harnack: detachment from the object 2. Barth: loyalty to the object (subject) C. Human culture and achievement, theology, - and dualism 1. Harnack: the divinity of human achievement 2. Barth: human achievement as signs a. "theology of crisis" and the cross b. "dialectic theology" as God's No and Yes D. The question of the "essence" of the gospel 1. Harnack: the simple gospel of neighbor-love 2. Barth: the simple gospel vs. the Word of God 3. Harnack vs. Barth on the prodigal son from the Appeal to the World of Culture, 1914 "We, the professors at German universities and academies, serve science and are engaged in a work of peace. But we are indignant to see that the enemies of Germany, England foremost among them, want to make a distinction -- allegedly to our advantage -- between the spirit of German science and what they label `Prussian militarism.' "There is no spirit in the German army that is different from that of the German nation, for both are one and we, too, are part of it. Our army also attends to science and owes no little of its achievements to it. Service in the army makes our youth diligent also for the work of peace as well as the work of science. . . . This spirit lives not only in Prussia but is the same all over the German Reich. It is the same in war and peace. "Our army is now engaged in the struggle for Germany's freedom and, therefore, for all the benefits of peace and morality not only in Germany. We believe that the salvation of European culture . . . rests on the victory which [the] `militarism' -- namely manly discipline, faithfulness, [and] courage to sacrifice -of the united and free German nation will achieve."
-- Cited by H. Martin Rumscheidt, Revelation and Theology (Cambridge 1972), p. 202 n. 54. Still more quotations from Adolf Harnack 21. "Only this [formulation] is possible: here was a truly human life and yet faith draws divine power and wisdom from it. Any other way of putting it draws you hopelessly into the docetism of the twonature doctrine. If Jesus was conscious of being God's Son in a unique way . . . then he was so in a completely humanly conscious way. This is what history tells us, not to mention sense and faith as well." -- Cited by Rumscheidt, p. 72. 22. "The doctrine of the two natures . . . contradicts historical [knowledge] and in fact every possible kind of knowledge." -- Cited by Rumscheidt, p. 83. 23. "Theology is concerned with religion and within it with the greatest event mankind has ever experienced: Jesus Christ and the effects he caused." -- Cited by Rumscheidt, p. 70f. 24. "Just as it is [historically] certain that no God [ever] appeared, died, and rose again; so it is equally certain that our senses and our knowledge of nature do not inform us about God in any way. The personal, higher life and morality are the sole areas in which we may be able to encounter God. God is holiness and love. If this is in fact so, then he becomes revealed to us in personal lives, that is, through people." -- Cited by Rumscheidt, p. 83. Lecture #12: BARTH & BRUNNER on NATURAL THEOLOGY: Theology & Politics in 1934
I. CALVIN, BARTH, AND BRUNNER ON NATURAL THEOLOGY A. Calvin on the content and utility of natural theology: a review B. Emil Brunner on natural theology: Natur und Gnade 1. Barth's "false conclusions" from sola gratia (#1) The image of God has been obliterated (#2) There is no such thing as a general revelation (#3-#4) We cannot speak of preservation, creation ordinances, natural law (#5-#6) We cannot speak of any "point of contact" 2. Brunner's counter-theses: (#1) The image of God survives in sinners (#2) Creation and conscience are revelatory but not salvific (#3-#4) God's grace is known in preservation & creation ordinances (marriage & state) (#5) Human beings are addressable by virtue of their remnant of the image of God (#6) The new creation restores what was damaged in the Fall 3. Brunner's rejection of Thomism and his appeal to Calvin and scripture C. Karl Barth on natural theology: Nein! Antwort an Emil Brunner 1. No natural theology -- negative or positive! 2. No "capacity for revelation," no "addressability" 3. No "creation ordinances" 4. The Holy Spirit presupposes no point of contact 5. No continuity between the new creation and the old life 6. Calvin's statements about natural knowledge of God are hypothetical 7. Addressability is not a human possibility but only a divine actuality D. Two analyses of the Barth / Brunner exchange. 1. Much ado about nothing? a. Their large degree of agreement b. Some real differences in evangelistic approach 2. The Barth / Brunner exchange in its historical context . . . II. GERMAN POLITICS AND GERMAN THEOLOGY IN THE 1930's A. Germany after World War I 1. The humiliation of defeat in 1918 2. Nationalism as a counter-reaction: fear of Russia and Bolshevism 3. Liberal theology and Kulturprotestantismus continues 4. A minority of disillusionment: Barth and his associates B. Hitler and National Socialism 1. Hitler's Kampf 2. Hitler's agenda 3. Hitler's strategy C. The rise of the "German Christians" 1. Early nationalist tendencies: The League for a German Church (1921), etc. 2. Germanism and its theological doctrines D. The Pastor's Emergency League, the Confessing Church, & the Barmen Declaration III. BARTH'S POSITION IN LIGHT OF THE HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES Quotations pertaining to the Barth / Brunner debate over nature & grace
Quotes 1-8 are from Natural Theology: Comprising "Nature and Grace" by ... Emil Brunner and the reply "No!" by ... Karl Barth (London: Geoffrey Bles, The Centenary Press, 1946). Quotes 9 & 10 are from Arthur C. Cochrane, The Church's Confession Under Hitler (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962), pp. 219ff & 122. 1. BRUNNER: "Only because men somehow know the will of God are they able to sin. A being which knew nothing of the law of God would be unable to sin -- as we see in the case of animals" (p. 25). 2. BRUNNER: "Even the most perfect theology will ... be unable to get beyond the double statement that as concerns the heathen, God did not leave himself without witness [cf. Acts 14:17, where Paul says this at Lystra, adding that `God gave good rain and harvest'], but that nevertheless they did not know him in such a way that he became their salvation" (p. 27). 3. BRUNNER: "[Monogamous] matrimony is a `natural' ordinance of the creator because the possibility of and the desire for its realisation lies within human nature and because it is realised to some extent [even] by men who are ignorant of the God revealed in Christ. For this reason there lies over [such] ordinances a twilight which cannot be dispelled. They are given by God. They are realised naturally. ... But -- and this is the critical point: only by means of faith can their significance be perfectly understood and ... realised according to the will of [God]" (p. 30). 4. BRUNNER: "Knowledge of sin is a necessary presupposition for understanding the divine message of grace" ( 31). 5. BRUNNER: "Natural man knows [these divine ordinances or laws] and yet does not know them. If he did not know them, he would not be human: [but] if he really knew them, he would not be a sinner" (pp. 31-32). 6. BRUNNER: "The Word of God could not reach a man who had lost his consciousness of God entirely. A man without conscience cannot be struck by the call `Repent . . . and believe the Gospel.' What the natural man knows of God, of the law and of his own dependence upon God, may be very confused and distorted. But even so it is the necessary, indispensable point of contact for divine grace. This is also proved by the fact that on the whole the New Testament did not create new words, but uses those that were created by the religious consciousness of the pagans" (pp. 32-33). 7. BARTH: "Only retrospectively is it possible to reflect on the way in which [God] `makes contact' with man, and this retrospect will ever be a retrospect upon a miracle" (p. 121). 8. BARTH: "Man is a being that has to be overcome by the Word and the Spirit of God, that has to be reconciled to God, justified and sanctified, comforted and ruled and finally saved by God. Is that not enough? Is not every addition to that really a subtraction from it? Would theology and the Church honour man if they demanded something `decisive' from him as well . . . ? [Is not this] alone decisive: . . . the fact that Christ has died and risen for man? Would not theology and the Church dishonour man if they addressed him, not because he has been addressed but because he can be addressed ? By so doing they would question or even deny the one allimportant positive good thing that can be said about him" (pp. 126-27). 9. Excerpts from the Program of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (1920):
#2: We demand the equality of Germany with other nations, and the abolition of the Peace Treaties of Versailles and Saint-Germain. #3: We demand land and territory for the sustenance of our people and for settling our superfluous population. #4: None but members of the nationality may be citizens of the State. None but those of German blood, irrespective of religion, may be members of the nationality. No Jew, therefore, is a member of the nationality. #24: We demand liberty for all religious confessions in the State, insofar as they do not in any way endanger its existence or do not offend the moral sentiment and the customs of the Germanic race. The party as such represents the standpoint of "positive Christianity" without binding itself confessionally to a particular faith. It opposes the Jewish materialistic spirit within and without and is convinced that permanent recovery of our people is possible only from within and on the basis of the principle of: General Welfare Before Individual Welfare. 10. The Rengsdorf Theses (1933), thesis #7: "State and Church are orders both willed by God. Consequently, they cannot prove to be in conflict. If, however, this should happen, then an encroachment from one side or the other has occurred. The Church owes obedience to the State in all temporal matters. The State has to guarantee to the Church scope to carry out its commission." Lecture #13: BULTMANN, DEMYTHOLOGIZING, & THE TASK OF THEOLOGY
A Discussion of Rudolf Bultmann's New Testament and Mythology (1941) I. MYTH IN THE NEW TESTAMENT A. The mythological world-view of the New Testament B. Why mythology doesn't matter 1. Bultmann and religionsgeschichte 2. Mythology as cultural accommodation C. The fixity of world-views II. THE TASK OF MODERN THEOLOGY: "BEYOND MYTHOLOGY" A. The purpose of mythology B. Mythology and self-understanding C. The truth-status of myth D. Bultmann's exegetical and hermeneutical presupposition "In any given age, cosmology may vary, but anthropology is a constant." (Herbert Braun) III. BULTMANN'S DE-MYTHOLOGIZED CHRISTIANITY A. The existentialist philosophy of Martin Heidegger 1. Estrangement and "thrownness" 2. No-thingness and non-being 3. Materialism and inauthenticity 4. Facing death in the present 5. Radical freedom and responsibility B. Has Bultmann imposed Heidegger on the New Testament? 1. A secular, philosophical version of the N.T. 2. The "author's intent" and self-understanding C. Bultmann's Heideggerian (existential/ist) Christianity 1. Sin as estrangement and fear of death 2. Faith as openness to the future 3. Is faith possible apart from Christ? a. The faith-claim of the existentialists b. What are the philosophers missing? c. The shape of Christian faith d. The demand of Christian proclamation D. Some criticisms: remythologizing, fideism Lecture #14: THE BARTH / BULTMANN DEBATE: "Christ & Adam" or "Adam & Christ"?
I. BULTMANN AS A "DIALECTICAL" AND "CRISIS" THEOLOGIAN A. Bultmann as a disciple of Barth? B. The early Barth and the later Barth 1. Barth's system in Romans 2. Negative anthropology 3. Barth on analogy C. Bultmann's lifelong consistency 1. Agreements with the early Barth 2. The parting of the ways II. CHRISTOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY IN ROMANS 5 A. The significance of Romans 5 B. Two essays: 1. Barth: "Christ and Adam: Man and Humanity in Romans 5" (1952) 2. Bultmann: "Adam and Christ in Romans 5" (1959) III. BARTH'S CHRISTOLOGY AND EXEGESIS: CHRIST AND ADAM IN ROMANS 5 A. Barth on Romans 5:1-11 1. The objectivity of justification 2. Christian anthropology B. Barth on Romans 5:12-21 1. A general anthropology 2. "Many" vs. "all" in vv. 18-19 3. Universalism and the impossibility of sin 4. Summary: What happens in faith? IV. BULTMANN'S CHRISTOLOGY & EXEGESIS: ADAM AND CHRIST IN ROMANS 5 A. No general anthropology B. The theme: not Christ but faith C. "Other spirits" in Paul D. Minimizing the sin of Adam Some quotations from Barth and Bultmann:
1. BARTH: "Our former existence outside Christ is, rightly understood, already a still hidden but real existence in Him." (Christ & Adam, 38). 2. BARTH: "Jesus Christ is the secret truth about the essential nature of man, and even sinful man is still essentially related to Him.... The fact of Christ ... dominates and includes all men. The nature of Christ objectively conditions human nature and the work of Christ makes an objective difference to the life and destiny of all men.... It is truth for all men whether they know it or not.... What is Christian is secretly but fundamentally identical with what is universally human." (C&A,107-11) 3. BULTMANN: "For adamic man there was no choice between life and death, but all were subject to death. The logical consequence would have to be that after Christ all men receive life. Naturally this is not what Paul means. Rather all men must now decide whether they want to belong to those who receive it, presupposing that the word of proclamation has reached them. While Adam brought death on all mankind after him without any possibility of their escaping, Christ brought a possibility open to all." (from Adam and Christ, p. 68) 4. BULTMANN: "One thing is now clear. The destiny of adamic man was determined by Adam's trespass, but the destiny of mankind after Christ is not determined in the same way by Christ's obedience; it depends on the decision of faith to receive i.t" (Adam and Christ, p. 68) Lecture #15: Roman Catholicism from the Reformation to Vatican I & Vatican II
I. The Roman Catholic Church in the Sixteenth Century A. The "Counter"-Reformation 1. The Council of Trent (1545-47 [I-VIII], 1551-52 [IX-XIV], 1562-63 [XV-XXV]) 2. The Index of Forbidden Books (1557-1966) and its effects B. The Catholic Reformation 1. Ignatius Loyola and the Society of Jesus ("Jesuits," [= S.J., 1540]) 2. Revival of Catholic piety (Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross) 3. Revival of Catholic scholasticism, especially Thomism (Cajetan, Bellarmine) II. The Roman Catholic Church in the Seventeenth Century A. Baianism & Jansenism (1640, 1653) B. Galileo (1633), Descartes (1637) C. Gallicanism (1682) III. Catholicism in the Nineteenth Century A. The Catholic Tbingen school B. The Oxford Movement & John Henry Newman C. The resurgence of neo-scholasticism D. Vatican I and papal infallibility 1. Pius IX's Ineffabilis Deus (1854) 2. Piux IX's Syllabus of Errors (1864) 3. Papal states (held since 321) confiscated by France (1791) & Italy (1861, 1870) 4. ternus pastor (1870): "We teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff,
when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when in discharge of the office of Pastor and Doctor of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme apostolic authority he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the Universal Church, by the divine assistance promised him in Blessed Peter, is possessed of that infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed that his Church should be endowed for defining doctrine regarding faith or morals; and that therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church." E. A late response to Marxism: Rerum Novarum (1891) F. The modernist controversy: Lamentabili and Pascendi (1907) IV. Twentieth-century Developments prior to Vatican II A. Divino Afflante Spiritu (1943) B. Pius XII's Munificentissimus (1950) C. Humani Generis (1950) V. The Second Vatican Council, 1962-65 A. Background: The role of John XXIII (d. 1963) and the calling of the council (1959) B. The Sessions: 1. 11 October - 8 December 1962 3. 14 September - 21 November 1964 2. 29 September - 4 December 1963 4. 14 September - 8 December 1965 C. The documents and doctrines 1. Overview 2. Lumen Gentium: the church, ecumenism D. John Paul II: Ut Unum Sint (1995) The Sixteen Documents of The Second Vatican Council
I. The Church in General: its nature and place in history: Dogmatic Constitution on the Church II. The Inner Life of the Church A. Proclamation and teaching 1. Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation 2. Declaration on Christian Education B. Worship: Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy C. Ministries and forms of Christian experience 1. Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests 2. Decree on Priestly Formation 3. Decree on the Bishops' Pastoral Office 4. Decree on the Appropriate Renewal of Religious Life 5. Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity D. Interrelationships among churches 1. Decree on Ecumenism 2. Decree on Eastern Catholic Churches III. The Church and the World beyond the Church A. Other religions: Declaration on Non-Christian Religions B. The world at large 1. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World 2. Decree on the Church's Missionary Activity 3. Declaration on Religious Freedom 4. Decree on the Instruments of Social Communication John Paul II: Ut Unum Sint, Encyclical letter on Commitment to Ecumenism (1995)
42: ". . .Christians of one confession no longer consider other Christians as enemies or strangers but see them as brothers and sisters. Again, the very expression separated brethren tends to be replaced today by expressions which more readily evoke the deep communion -- linked to the baptismal character -- which the Spirit fosters in spite of historical and canonical divisions. Today we speak of `other Christians,' `others who have received Baptism,' and `Christians of other Communities.' . . . There is an increased awareness that we all belong to Christ." 94: "The mission of the Bishop of Rome within the College of all the Pastors consists precisely in `keeping watch' (episkopein), like a sentinel, so that, through the efforts of the Pastors, the true voice of Christ the Shepherd may be heard in all the particular Churches. In this way, in each of the particular Churches entrusted to those Pastors, the una, sancta, catholica et apostolica Ecclesia is made present. All the churches are in full and visible communion, because all the pastors are in communion with Peter and therefore united in Christ. "Without the power and the authority without which such an office would be illusory, the Bishop of Rome must ensure the communion of all the Churches. For this reason, he is the first servant of unity. This primacy is exercised on various levels, including vigilance over the handing down of the Word, the celebration of the Liturgy and the Sacraments, the Church's mission, discipline and the Christian life. . . ." lecture #16 THE RISE OF CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY: Black, Liberation, & Feminist Theologies -- and their allies
I. What is Contextual Theology, and where did it come from? A. 1860-1960: Abolitionism, workers' rights, women's rights, civil rights B. History from below ... theology from below 1. The rise of social history, popular history, women's history, microhistory 2. The New Historicism and the death of the grand narrative 3. Marxist critique and contextual analysis II. Black Theology A. Origins: the American civil rights movement B. Figures 1. Howard Thurman, Jesus and the Disinherited (1949) 2. Joseph Washington, Black Religion (1964) 3. Albert Cleage, Black Messiah (1969) 4. The "Black Manifesto" (Detroit, 1969) 5. James H. Cone, Black Theology and Black Power (1969), A Black Theology of Liberation (1970) C. Themes 1. Is Christianity a white religion? 2. The solidarity of Jesus with the oppressed 3. A theology of blackness, Jesus as the Black Messiah III. Liberation Theology A. Origins: The 1968 CELAM conference in Medelln (= Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano) B. Figures 1. Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation (1971, tr. 1974) 2. Juan Luis Segundo, Jan Sobrino, Jos Miguez Bonino, Leonardo Boff C. Themes 1. Preferential option for the poor / hermeneutical privilege of the poor 2. Salvation as liberation, the Exodus paradigm 3. The politics of Jesus 4. The priority of praxis (not practice) over theory: no detachment 5. Marxist critique, recognition of institutional oppression 6. "Base" communities (comunidades eclesiales de base) & consciousness raising CH 505 syllabus page 16 IV. Feminist Theology A. Origins 1. Nineteenth-century abolitionism and the "first wave" of [Christian] feminism 2. The civil rights movement and the "second wave" of feminism 3. Catholic women and Vatican II B. Figures 1. Mary Daly, Beyond God the Father (1973) 2. Rosemary Radford Reuther, Sexism and God-Talk (1983) 3. Elisabeth Schssler Fiorenza, In Memory of Her (1983) 4. Daphne Hampson, Theology and Feminism (1990) C. Themes 1. Is God male? The patriarchal bias of culture, religion, scripture, liturgy 2. Are women human? Challenging assumptions about gender roles and human nature 3. The hermeneutic of suspicion: whose interest is being served? 4. Christian virtues and a feminist critique of sin D. Feminist agendas 1. Radical deconstruction: Daphne Hampson 2. Alternative reconstruction: Elizabeth Schssler Fiorenza 3. Recovery, revisioning: evangelical feminism E. Womanist theology: recognizing the complications that race and class add F. Mujerista / feminista theology V. Contextual Theologies in Asian, Africa, India A. Minjung theology (Korea) B. Dalit liberation (India) VI. Gay theology, queer theology -- theologies of "difference" VII. Lessons and queries A. Suspicion as hermeneutic vs. ideology 1. Reductionism, or plurality of meaning? 2. A corrective for triumphalist exegesis? B. Accommodation or syncretism? A fad? C. Attention to social location 1. What does it mean to "do" theology -- or history? a. Calvin as refugee? b. Barth on context: "Bible and newspaper" c. Globalism and theology today 2. Social location and Christian tradition = downtrodden, outcast or anti-caste CRN50043 CH 505 syllabus page 16a lecture #16 THE RISE OF CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY:
James H. Cone 1. "Is it possible to be racist and Christian at the same time?" some quotations -- Theological Studies 61 (2000): 735 2. "No one, absolutely no one, can be a representative of Jesus and treat others as subhuman. Any theology that does not fight White supremacy with all its intellectual strength cancels its Christian identity." 737 3. "If the historical Jesus is any clue for an analysis of the contemporary Christ, then he must be where men are enslaved. To speak of him is to speak of the liberation of the oppressed. In a society that defines blackness as evil and whiteness as good, the theological significance of Jesus is found in the possibility --A Black Theology of Liberation (1970) of human liberation through blackness. Jesus is the Black Christ! 4. "If Christ is truly the Suffering Servant of God who takes upon himself the suffering of his people, thereby reestablishing the covenant of God, then he must be black. To get at the meaning of this and not get bogged down in racial emotionalism, we need only to ask, "Is it possible to talk about suffering in America without talking about the meaning of blackness? Can we really believe that Christ is the Suffering Servant --A Black Theology of Liberation (1970) par excellence if he is not black?" Gustavo Gutierrez 5. "The theology of liberation attempts to reflect on the experience and meaning of the faith based on the commitment to abolish injustice and to build a new society; this theology must be verified by the practice of that commitment, by active, effective participation in the struggle which the exploited social classes have --A Theology of Liberation (1971, tr. 1974), 307 undertaken against their oppressors." 6. "If theological reflection does not vitalize the action of the Christian community in the world by making its commitment to charity fuller and more radical, if--more concretely--in Latin America it does not lead the Church to be on the side of the oppressed classes and dominated peoples, clearly and without --Ibid., 307 qualifications, then this theological reflection will have been of little value." Daphne Hampson 7. "The feminist challenge strikes at the heart of Christianity.... The Christian myth ... has rapidly been discarded by a large number of people, even in the last twenty years. Feminism will come to make it seem --Theology and Feminism (1990), 1-2 not only untrue but immoral." 8. "As long as people find the Christian story good there is reason to believe in it.... But once doubt comes to be cast on the goodness of this story, then human beings will raise questions also as to its truth. ... Many --Ibid., 45 women ... realize, as feminists, the extent to which this Christian story has hurt women." Elizabeth Stuart 9. "Queer Christians are not content simply to allow one another a completely free rein. We are Christians because we believe that Christianity provides us with the rules, the language, the grammar to make sense --Religion is a Queer Thing, intro of our lives. We often disagree over the rules of Christian grammar. ... 10. "Queer theology shares the conviction of liberation, feminist and other new theologies that no theology is --Ibid. neutral or objective. ... 11. "Only if queer theology reflects the reality and spirituality of those who live the reality of queer lives in the mass and muddle of the world will queer theology escape the danger of being a self-serving ideology masquerading as theology and become a theology which has the potential to transform not just queer --Ibid. people but all men and women." ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course CH 505 taught by Professor Thompson during the Spring '07 term at Fuller Theological Seminary.
- Spring '07