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CHAPTER 2 TOURISM THROUGH THE AGES LEARNING OBJECTIVES Recognize the antiquity of human travel over vast distances on both sea and land. Understand how these journeys have evolved from trips that were difficult and often dangerous into mass travel for millions today. Learn the names of some of the great travelers in history who wrote astonishing accounts of exotic places they had visited. Discover the many similarities in travel motivations, economic conditions, political situations, attractions, and tourist facilities during the period of the Roman Empire and today. CHAPTER OUTLINE Outline Summary Points of Emphasis 1. Introduction Today’s travelers are but the latest aggregation of those which go back into antiquity. But they don’t do their traveling by themselves. Planning, guiding, transporting, and accommodating them has given a livelihood to countless legions over thousands of years. 2. Early beginnings About 4,000 B.C.E. the Sumerians grasped the idea of money, invented cuneiform writing, the wheel, and tour guides – surely founders of tourism! About 5,000 years ago, cruises of discovery were conducted from Egypt, and many festivals held there. Primitive roads then paved ones followed built by the Hittites, Minoans, Assyrians, those in India, and especially by the Romans who started building roads in 150 B.C.E. Lands of the Mediterranean Sea area saw great advances in travel. In addition to roads, the Olympic Games, other festivals, ships of the Phoenicians, and writings of Herodotus contributed to early tourism. But all travel then was somewhat dangerous. During the Dark Ages in Europe (476-1450 C.E.) following the collapse of the Roman Empire, only the most adventuresome would travel. In Oceania amazing voyages were accomplished. In about 500 C.E. Hawaii was colonized by Polynesians. In Europe, monasteries and early inns accommodated travelers. The Grand Tour was noteworthy in the 17th and 18th centuries for English well-heeled youths. In America, early travel by Europeans began in the 16 th century. More modern developments were the spas and seaside resorts of Britain, the first rail excursions, the first steamship agent, travel agent, and escorted tours. Early modes of travel were by foot,
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beasts of burden, by boat, and by wheeled vehicles, notably stagecoaches. Today’s modes are by rail, automobile, motorcoach, and airplane. 3.
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