Kindeys and liver Notes

Kindeys and liver Notes - Kidneys 1 gross anatomy Gross...

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Kidneys 1: gross anatomy Gross anatomy Macroscopic anatomy o Another name o What you can see with the human eye In situ – as it occurs in the living animal In Situ location: Lungs and heart – thoracic cavity Kidneys to bladder connected by ureter Kidney located behind spleen dorsal of the intestine – Dog Cat – lumbar location with ureters moving urine my peristalsis to the bladder Kidneys not normally side by side- usually one is more cranial than the other Shape Typical kidney bean shaped – dog and cat Horses – left kidney shaped, right heart shaped o Adrenal glands located on the aorta on the top side of the kidneys Cows – kidneys look different – Have a lot of blood vessels and capillaries Renal – kidney Ventral view when animal is in dorsal recumbency Blood coming in and out through the renal artery and vein Efferent and afferent blood supply Pathology – what could go wrong Ectopic kidney (not in normal location o Ectopic kidney usually causes no symptoms unless complication such as ureteral obstruction or infection develop o Congenital disorders is a low kidney on the proper side which failed to ascend normally ( over pelvic brim in the pelvis) o Prone to ureteral obstruction and infection which may lead to pain or fever Supernumerary kidneys (having a number greater than normal) o Kidneys 2: the nephron
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Functional unit of the kidney Bigger the animal more nephrons Cannot very in size Microscopic Need to make more urine- have more not bigger nephrons o Cattle – 4 million per kidney o Cat – 190,000 per kidney o Human – one million per kidney o Dogs – 400,000 per kidney Nephron steps Bowmans capsule – afferent arterial Proximal convoluted tubular – crude urine collects Distal convoluted tubule- efferent arterial o More refined urine Collecting duct o Collects urine from other nephrons No blood cells leave Afferent arteriole – blood flowing in Whole structure is surrounded by blood vessels Glomerulus Blood comes in through afferent arteriole Blood leaves through efferent arteriole Bowmans capsule collects fluid Proximal tubule – crude urine Renal cortex outer layer Inner layer renal medulla Urinary excretion Filtration o H20 o Nacl, k, hco3 o Glucose o Amino acids o Urea Reabsorption o Uric acid o Organic acids Secretion o In blood and then put into urine Excretion Kidneys 3: many functions Kidney
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